Queen Elizabeth II. Gold Silbermünze signiert Beerdigung tot 1926 2022 König Karl 3

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Seller: checkoutmyunqiuefunitems ✉️ (2.789) 99.9%, Location: Manchester, Take a look at my other items, GB, Ships to: WORLDWIDE, Item: 275977147392 Queen Elizabeth II. Gold Silbermünze signiert Beerdigung tot 1926 2022 König Karl 3. The Right Reverend Dr John Inge, Lord High Almoner. Junor 2005, p. 72. Ranter, Harro. "Incident British Aerospace BAe-146-100 ZE700, 29 Jun 1994". Archived from the original on 27 October 2017. Retrieved 12 May 2017.; Boggan, Steve (19 July 1995). Queen Elizabeth II 1926 - 2022 Memorial Coin This is a Silver and Gold Plated Uncirculated Commemorative Coin One side has an profile image of the Queen with a photo of her cofin being carried at her funeral It has her title "Queen Elizabeth II" and the year she was born 1926 and the year of he death 2022 It has has her signature The back has an image of King Charles III and the words "King of the United Kingdom" "King Charles III" and the day he became king September 8th 2022 The coin is 40mm in diameter, weighs about 1 oz. They coin you will receive has never been removed from its air-tight acrylic coin holder case A Beautiful coin and Magnificent Keepsake Souvenir of a remarkable lady In Excellent Condition Please Check out my other Gold Coins > Please CLICK HERE TO VISIT MY SHOP Bid with Confidence - Check My 100% Positive Feedback from almost 1,000 Satisfied Customers I have over 4 years of Ebay Selling Experience - So Why Not Treat Yourself? I have got married recently and need to raise funds to meet the costs also we are planning to move into a house together I always combined postage on multiple items so why not > Check out my other items ! All Payment Methods in All Major Currencies Accepted. All Items Sent out within 24 hours of Receiving Payment. Overseas Bidders Please Note Surface Mail Delivery Times > Western Europe takes up to 2 weeks, Eastern Europe up to 5 weeks, North America up to 6 weeks, South America, Africa and Asia up to 8 weeks and Australasia up to 12 weeks For that Interesting Conversational Piece, A Birthday Present, Christmas Gift, A Comical Item to Cheer Someone Up or That Unique Perfect Gift for the Person Who has Everything....You Know Where to Look for a Bargain! 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Harare, Brasilia, Kuwait, Munich, Portland, Brussels, Vienna, San Jose, Damman , Copenhagen, Brisbane, Riverside, San Bernardino, Cincinnati and Accra Elizabeth II queen of United Kingdom Alternate titles: Elizabeth Alexandra Mary, Elizabeth II, by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of her other realms and territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith By The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica Last Updated: Sep 19, 2022 Edit History Elizabeth II Elizabeth II See all media Born: April 21, 1926 London England Died: September 8, 2022 (aged 96) Balmoral Castle Scotland House / Dynasty: house of Windsor Notable Family Members: spouse Philip, Duke of Edinburgh father George VI mother Elizabeth daughter Anne, the Princess Royal son Prince Edward, earl of Wessex son Prince Andrew, duke of York son Charles III sister Princess Margaret Summary Read a brief summary of this topic Discover how Elizabeth II became queen of the United Kingdom Discover how Elizabeth II became queen of the United KingdomSee all videos for this article Elizabeth II, in full Elizabeth Alexandra Mary, officially Elizabeth II, by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of her other realms and territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith, (born April 21, 1926, London, England—died September 8, 2022, Balmoral Castle, Aberdeenshire, Scotland), queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland from February 6, 1952, to September 8, 2022. In 2015 she surpassed Victoria to become the longest-reigning monarch in British history. Early life Queen Elizabeth, King George VI, Princess Margaret, and Princess Elizabeth Queen Elizabeth, King George VI, Princess Margaret, and Princess Elizabeth Princess Elizabeth Princess Elizabeth Elizabeth was the elder daughter of Prince Albert, duke of York, and his wife, Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon. As the child of a younger son of King George V, the young Elizabeth had little prospect of acceding to the throne until her uncle, Edward VIII (afterward duke of Windsor), abdicated in her father’s favour on December 11, 1936, at which time her father became King George VI and she became heir presumptive. The princess’s education was supervised by her mother, who entrusted her daughters to a governess, Marion Crawford; the princess was also grounded in history by C.H.K. Marten, afterward provost of Eton College, and had instruction from visiting teachers in music and languages. During World War II she and her sister, Princess Margaret Rose, perforce spent much of their time safely away from the London blitz and separated from their parents, living mostly at Balmoral Castle in Scotland and at the Royal Lodge, Windsor, and Windsor Castle. Britain's Queen Elizabeth II smiles to the crowd from Buckingham Palace (London, England) balcony at the end of the Platinum Pageant in London on June 5, 2022 as part of Queen Elizabeth II's platinum jubilee celebrations. The curtain comes down on four days of momentous nationwide celebrations to honor Queen Elizabeth II's historic Platinum Jubilee with a day-long pageant lauding the 96 year old monarch's record seven decades on the throne. (British royalty) READ MORE ON THIS TOPIC Elizabeth II: A Life in Pictures Remembering a life of dignity, grace, and duty. Princess Elizabeth and Philip, duke of Edinburgh: wedding Elizabeth II: family Philip, duke of Edinburgh Early in 1947 Princess Elizabeth went with the king and queen to South Africa. After her return there was an announcement of her betrothal to her distant cousin Lieutenant Philip Mountbatten of the Royal Navy, formerly Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark. The marriage took place in Westminster Abbey on November 20, 1947. On the eve of the wedding her father, the king, conferred upon the bridegroom the titles of duke of Edinburgh, earl of Merioneth, and Baron Greenwich. They took residence at Clarence House in London. Their first child, Prince Charles (Charles Philip Arthur George), was born November 14, 1948, at Buckingham Palace. Accession to the throne Elizabeth II: crtion proclamation declaring Elizabeth II queen of the United Kingdom Elizabeth II: opening of Parliament Elizabeth II: Christmas broadcast In the summer of 1951 the health of King George VI entered into a serious decline, and Princess Elizabeth represented him at the Trooping the Colour and on various other state occasions. On October 7 she and her husband set out on a highly successful tour of Canada and Washington, D.C. After Christmas in England she and the duke set out in January 1952 for a tour of Australia and New Zealand, but en route, at Sagana, Kenya, news reached them of the king’s death on February 6, 1952. Elizabeth, now queen, at once flew back to England. The first three months of her reign, the period of full mourning for her father, were passed in comparative seclusion. But in the summer, after she had moved from Clarence House to Buckingham Palace, she undertook the routine duties of the sovereign and carried out her first state opening of Parliament on November 4, 1952. Her crtion was held at Westminster Abbey on June 2, 1953. Elizabeth II: royal tour of New Zealand Beginning in November 1953 the queen and the duke of Edinburgh made a six-month round-the-world tour of the Commonwealth, which included the first visit to Australia and New Zealand by a reigning British monarch. In 1957, after state visits to various European nations, she and the duke visited Canada and the United States. In 1961 she made the first royal British tour of the Indian subcontinent in 50 years, and she was also the first reigning British monarch to visit South America (in 1968) and the Persian Gulf countries (in 1979). During her “Silver Jubilee” in 1977, she presided at a London banquet attended by the leaders of the 36 members of the Commonwealth, traveled all over Britain and Northern Ireland, and toured overseas in the South Pacific and Australia, in Canada, and in the Caribbean. Elizabeth II: family Elizabeth II: corgis On the accession of Queen Elizabeth, her son Prince Charles became heir apparent; he was named prince of Wales on July 26, 1958, and was so invested on July 1, 1969. The queen’s other children were Princess Anne (Anne Elizabeth Alice Louise), born August 15, 1950, and created princess royal in 1987; Prince Andrew (Andrew Albert Christian Edward), born February 19, 1960, and created duke of York in 1986; and Prince Edward (Edward Anthony Richard Louis), born March 10, 1964, and created earl of Wessex and Viscount Severn in 1999. All these children have the surname “of Windsor,” but in 1960 Elizabeth decided to create the hyphenated name Mountbatten-Windsor for other descendants not styled prince or princess and royal highness. Elizabeth’s first grandchild (Princess Anne’s son) was born on November 15, 1977. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Subscribe Now The modern monarchy Elizabeth II: funeral for Princess Diana Queen Elizabeth II: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center The queen seemed increasingly aware of the modern role of the monarchy, allowing, for example, the televising of the royal family’s domestic life in 1970 and condoning the formal dissolution of her sister’s marriage in 1978. In the 1990s, however, the royal family faced a number of challenges. In 1992, a year that Elizabeth referred to as the royal family’s annus horribilis, Prince Charles and his wife, Diana, princess of Wales, separated, as did Prince Andrew and his wife, Sarah, duchess of York. Moreover, Anne divorced, and a fire gutted the royal residence of Windsor Castle. In addition, as the country struggled with a recession, resentment over the royals’ lifestyle mounted, and in 1992 Elizabeth, although personally exempt, agreed to pay taxes on her private income. The separation and later divorce (1996) of Charles and the immensely popular Diana further eroded support for the royal family, which was viewed by some as antiquated and unfeeling. The criticism intensified following Diana’s death in 1997, especially after Elizabeth initially refused to allow the national flag to fly at half-staff over Buckingham Palace. In line with her earlier attempts at modernizing the monarchy, the queen subsequently sought to present a less-stuffy and less-traditional image of the monarchy. These attempts were met with mixed success. British royal family Elizabeth II with U.S. Pres. Barack Obama Elizabeth II and Catherine, duchess of Cambridge In 2002 Elizabeth celebrated her 50th year on the throne. As part of her “Golden Jubilee,” events were held throughout the Commonwealth, including several days of festivities in London. The celebrations were somewhat diminished by the deaths of Elizabeth’s mother and sister early in the year. Beginning in the latter part of the first decade of the 21st century, the public standing of the royal family rebounded, and even Charles’s 2005 marriage to Camilla Parker Bowles found much support among the British people. In April 2011 Elizabeth led the family in celebrating the wedding of Prince William of Wales—the elder son of Charles and Diana—and Catherine Middleton. The following month she surpassed George III to become the second longest-reigning monarch in British history, behind Victoria. Also in May, Elizabeth made a historic trip to Ireland, becoming both the first British monarch to visit the Irish republic and the first to set foot in Ireland since 1911. In 2012 Elizabeth celebrated her “Diamond Jubilee,” marking 60 years on the throne. On September 9, 2015, she surpassed Victoria’s record reign of 63 years and 216 days. Elizabeth II at the funeral of Philip, duke of Edinburgh Elizabeth II and Prince Philip In August 2017 Prince Philip officially retired from public life, though he periodically appeared at official engagements after that. In the meantime, Elizabeth began to reduce her own official engagements, passing some duties on to Prince Charles and other senior members of the royal family, though the pool of stand-ins shrank when Charles’s younger son, Prince Harry, duke of Sussex, and his wife, Meghan, duchess of Sussex, controversially chose to give up their royal roles in March 2020. During this period, public interest in the queen and the royal family grew as a result of the widespread popularity of The Crown, a Netflix television series about the Windsors that debuted in 2016. Having dealt with several physical setbacks in recent years, Philip, who had been Elizabeth’s husband for more than seven decades, died in April 2021. On their 50th wedding anniversary, in 1997, Elizabeth had said of Philip, “He has, quite simply, been my strength and stay all these years.” Because of social-distancing protocols brought about by the cvd-19 pandemic, the queen sat alone in a choir stall in St. George’s Chapel (in Windsor Castle) at Philip’s funeral. The widely disseminated images of her tragic isolation were heartbreaking but emblematic of the dignity and courage that she brought to her reign. Elizabeth II and Liz Truss In June 2022 Britain celebrated Elizabeth’s 70 years on the throne with the “Platinum Jubilee,” a four-day national holiday that included the Trooping the Colour ceremony, a thanksgiving service at St. Paul’s Cathedral, a pop music concert at Buckingham Palace, and a pageant that employed street arts, theatre, music, circus, carnival, and costume to honour the queen’s reign. Health issues limited Elizabeth’s involvement. Concerns about the queen’s health also led to a break in tradition when, in September, she appointed Boris Johnson’s replacement as prime minister, Liz Truss, at Balmoral rather than at Buckingham Palace, where she had formally appointed more than a dozen prime ministers. Just days later, on September 8, Elizabeth’s death, at age 96, shocked Britain and the world. Prince Charles succeeded her on the throne as King Charles III. Ten days of national commemoration of her life and legacy—long planned as “Operation London Bridge”—followed. Notably, the queen lay in state for a day in St. Giles’ Cathedral in Edinburgh and then for three days in Westminster Hall in London, outside of which mourners stood in a line that stretched for miles, in some cases waiting for more than 24 hours to view Elizabeth’s casket. Her sombre funeral ceremony in Westminster Abbey on September 19 was attended by an estimated 100 heads of foreign governments. Following a procession to Wellington Arch, during which Big Ben tolled, the queen’s casket was borne by hearse to her final resting place in St. George’s Chapel at Windsor Castle. Elizabeth II Elizabeth was known to favour simplicity in court life and was also known to take a serious and informed interest in government business, aside from the traditional and ceremonial duties. Privately, she became a keen horsewoman; she kept racehorses, frequently attended races, and periodically visited the Kentucky stud farms in the United States. Her financial and property holdings made her one of the world’s richest women. Charles III Head of the Commonwealth Photograph of Charles III Charles as Prince of Wales, 2017 King of the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth realms Reign 8 September 2022 – present Predecessor Elizabeth II Heir apparent William, Prince of Wales Born Prince Charles of Edinburgh 14 November 1948 (age 73) Buckingham Palace, London, England Spouses Diana Spencer (m. 1981; div. 1996) Camilla Parker Bowles (m. 2005) Issue Detail William, Prince of Wales Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex Names Charles Philip Arthur George[fn 1] House Windsor[1] Father Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh Mother Elizabeth II Religion Protestant[fn 2] Signature Charles's signature in black ink Education Gordonstoun Alma mater Trinity College, Cambridge (MA) Military career Allegiance United Kingdom[fn 3] Service/branch Royal Navy Royal Air Force[fn 3] Active service 1971–1976 Rank See list Commands held HMS Bronington Royal family of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms Charles III (Charles Philip Arthur George; born 14 November 1948) is King of the United Kingdom and 14 other Commonwealth realms.[fn 4] He acceded to the throne on 8 September 2022 upon the death of his mother, Elizabeth II. He was the longest-serving heir apparent in British history and, at the age of 73, is the oldest person to ascend the British throne. Charles was born in Buckingham Palace during the reign of his maternal grandfather, King George VI. Charles was three when his mother ascended the throne in 1952, making him the heir apparent. He was made Prince of Wales in 1958 and his investiture was held in 1969. He was educated at Cheam and Gordonstoun schools, as was his father, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. Charles later spent six months at the Timbertop campus of Geelong Grammar School in Victoria, Australia. After earning a Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of Cambridge, Charles served in the Air Force and Navy from 1971 to 1976. In 1981, he married Lady Diana Spencer, with whom he had two sons, William and Harry. In 1996, the couple divorced after they had each engaged in well-publicised extramarital affairs. In 2005, Charles married his long-time partner, Camilla Parker Bowles. As Prince of Wales, Charles undertook official duties on behalf of Queen Elizabeth II. He founded the youth charity the Prince's Trust in 1976, sponsors the Prince's Charities, and is a patron, president, or a member of over 400 other charities and organisations. He has advocated for the conservation of historic buildings and the importance of architecture in society.[3] A critic of modernist architecture, Charles worked on the creation of Poundbury, an experimental new town based on his architectural tastes. He is also an author or co-author of over 20 books. An environmentalist, Charles supported organic farming and action to prevent climate change during his time as the manager of the Duchy of Cornwall estates, earning him awards and recognition from environmental groups.[4] He is also a prominent critic of the adoption of genetically modified food. Charles's support for homeopathy and other alternative medicine has been the subject of criticism. Early life, family and education Christening of Charles (centre, wearing the royal christening gown) in 1948: (from left to right) his grandfather George VI, his mother Princess Elizabeth holding the infant Charles, his father Philip and his grandmother Queen Elizabeth Charles was born at 21:14 (GMT) on 14 November 1948,[5] during the reign of his maternal grandfather, King George VI. He was the first child of Princess Elizabeth, Duchess of Edinburgh (later Queen Elizabeth II), and Philip, Duke of Edinburgh.[6] His parents would have three additional children, Anne (born 1950), Andrew (born 1960) and Edward (born 1964). On 15 December 1948, at four weeks old, he was christened in the Music Room of Buckingham Palace by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Geoffrey Fisher.[fn 5][8] In February 1952, upon the death of his grandfather and the accession of his mother as Queen Elizabeth II, Charles became the heir apparent. Under a charter of King Edward III in 1337, and as the monarch's eldest son, he automatically assumed the traditional titles of the Duke of Cornwall and, in the Scottish peerage, the titles Duke of Rothesay, Earl of Carrick, Baron of Renfrew, Lord of the Isles, and Prince and Great Steward of Scotland.[9] On 2 June 1953, Charles attended his mother's crtion at Westminster Abbey.[10] When Charles turned five, a governess, Catherine Peebles, was appointed to oversee his education at Buckingham Palace.[11] On 7 November 1956, Charles commenced classes at Hill House School in west London.[12] He was the first heir apparent to attend school rather than be educated by a private tutor.[13] He did not receive preferential treatment from the school's founder and headmaster, Stuart Townend, who advised the Queen to have Charles train in football because the boys were never deferential to anyone on the football field.[14] Charles then attended two of his father's former schools, Cheam Preparatory School in Hampshire, England,[15] from 1958,[12] followed by Gordonstoun in the north-east of Scotland,[16] beginning classes there in April 1962.[12] With his parents and sister Anne, October 1957 In Charles's 1994 authorised biography by Jonathan Dimbleby, Elizabeth and Philip were described as physically and emotionally distant parents, and Philip was blamed for his disregard of Charles's sensitive nature and forcing him to attend Gordonstoun, where he was bullied.[17] Though Charles reportedly described Gordonstoun, noted for its especially rigorous curriculum, as "Colditz in kilts",[15] he subsequently praised Gordonstoun, stating it had taught him "a great deal about myself and my own abilities and disabilities. It taught me to accept challenges and take the initiative." In a 1975 interview, he said he was "glad" he had attended Gordonstoun and that the "toughness of the place" was "much exaggerated".[18] He spent two terms in 1966 at the Timbertop campus of Geelong Grammar School in Victoria, Australia, during which time he visited Papua New Guinea on a school trip with his history tutor, Michael Collins Persse.[19][20] In 1973, Charles described his time at Timbertop as the most enjoyable part of his whole education.[21] Upon his return to Gordonstoun, Charles emulated his father in becoming head boy. He left in 1967 with six GCE O-levels and two A-levels in history and French, at grades B and C respectively.[19][22] On his early education, Charles later remarked, "I didn't enjoy school as much as I might have, but that was only because I'm happier at home than anywhere else."[18] Charles broke royal tradition a second time when he proceeded straight to university after his A-levels, rather than joining the British Armed Forces.[15] In October 1967, he was admitted to Trinity College, Cambridge, where he read archaeology and anthropology for the first part of the Tripos, and then changed to history for the second part.[23][19] During his second year, Charles attended the University College of Wales in Aberystwyth, studying Welsh history and language for a term.[19] He graduated from the University of Cambridge with a 2:2 Bachelor of Arts (BA) degree on 23 June 1970, the first British heir apparent to earn a university degree.[19][24] As per tradition, on 2 August 1975, his BA was promoted to a Master of Arts (MA Cantab) degree: at Cambridge, Master of Arts is not a postgraduate degree.[19] Prince of Wales Charles and his first wife Diana with Sir James Ramsay, Governor of Queensland (far left), and Ramsay's wife Janet (far right), Brisbane, 1983 Charles was created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester on 26 July 1958,[25] though his investiture was not held until 1 July 1969, when he was crowned by his mother in a televised ceremony held at Caernarfon Castle.[26] He took his seat in the House of Lords in 1970,[27] and he made his maiden speech in June 1974,[28] the first royal to speak from the floor since the future Edward VII in 1884.[29] He spoke again in 1975.[30] Charles began to take on more public duties, founding the Prince's Trust in 1976,[31] and travelling to the United States in 1981.[32] In the mid-1970s, Charles expressed an interest in serving as Governor-General of Australia, at the suggestion of Australian prime minister Malcolm Fraser, but because of a lack of public enthusiasm nothing came of the proposal.[33] Charles commented: "So, what are you supposed to think when you are prepared to do something to help and you are just told you're not wanted?"[34] Military training and career Charles served in the Royal Air Force and, following in the footsteps of his father, grandfather and two of his great-grandfathers, in the Royal Navy. During his second year at Cambridge, he requested and received Royal Air Force training, learning to fly the Chipmunk aircraft with Cambridge University Air Squadron. On 8 March 1971, he flew himself to the Royal Air Force College Cranwell to train as a jet pilot.[35] He was presented with his RAF wings in August 1971.[36] After the passing-out parade that September, he embarked on a naval career and enrolled in a six-week course at the Royal Naval College Dartmouth. He then served on the guided-missile destroyer HMS Norfolk (1971–1972) and the frigates HMS Minerva (1972–1973) and HMS Jupiter (1974). In 1974, he qualified as a helicopter pilot at RNAS Yeovilton, and then joined 845 Naval Air Squadron, operating from HMS Hermes.[37] He gave up flying after crash-landing a BAe 146 in Islay in 1994, for which the crew was found negligent by a board of inquiry.[38] On 9 February 1976, Charles took command of the coastal minehunter HMS Bronington for his last ten months of active service in the navy.[37] In 1978, he took part in a parachute training course at RAF Brize Norton after being appointed colonel-in-chief of the Parachute Regiment a year earlier.[39] Relationships and marriages Bachelorhood In his youth, Charles was amorously linked to a number of women. His great-uncle Lord Mountbatten advised him: In a case like yours, the man should sow his wild oats and have as many affairs as he can before settling down, but for a wife he should choose a suitable, attractive and sweet-charactered girl before she has met anyone else she might fall for ... It is disturbing for women to have experiences if they have to remain on a pedestal after marriage.[40] Photograph by Allan Warren, 1972 Charles's girlfriends included Georgiana Russell, the daughter of Sir John Russell, who was British ambassador to Spain;[41] Lady Jane Wellesley, the daughter of the 8th Duke of Wellington;[42] Davina Sheffield;[43] Lady Sarah Spencer;[44] and Camilla Shand,[45] who later became his second wife.[46] Early in 1974, Mountbatten began corresponding with Charles about a potential marriage to Amanda Knatchbull, who was Mountbatten's granddaughter.[47] Charles wrote to Amanda's mother—Lady Brabourne, who was also his godmother—expressing interest in her daughter, to which she replied approvingly, though she suggested that a courtship with the not yet 17-year-old girl was premature.[48] Four years later, Mountbatten arranged for Amanda and himself to accompany Charles on his 1980 tour of India. Both fathers, however, objected; Philip feared that Charles would be eclipsed by his famous uncle (who had served as the last British Viceroy and first Governor-General of India), while Lord Brabourne warned that a joint visit would concentrate media attention on the cousins before they could decide on becoming a couple.[49] However, in August 1979, before Charles would depart alone for India, Mountbatten was assassinated by the Irish Republican Army. When Charles returned, he proposed to Amanda, but in addition to her grandfather, she had lost her paternal grandmother and youngest brother Nicholas in the bomb attack and was now reluctant to join the royal family.[49] In June 1980, Charles officially turned down Chevening House, placed at his disposal since 1974, as his future residence. Chevening, a stately home in Kent, was bequeathed, along with an endowment, to the Crown by the last Earl Stanhope, Amanda's childless great-uncle, in the hope that Charles would eventually occupy it.[50] In 1977, a newspaper report mistakenly announced his engagement to Princess Marie-Astrid of Luxembourg.[51] Marriages Marriage to Lady Diana Spencer Main article: Wedding of Prince Charles and Lady Diana Spencer Charles and Diana visit Uluru in Australia, March 1983 Charles first met Lady Diana Spencer in 1977 while he was visiting her home, Althorp. He was the companion of her elder sister, Sarah, and did not consider Diana romantically until mid-1980. While Charles and Diana were sitting together on a bale of hay at a friend's barbecue in July, she mentioned that he had looked forlorn and in need of care at the funeral of his granduncle Lord Mountbatten. Soon, according to Charles's chosen biographer, Jonathan Dimbleby, "without any apparent surge in feeling, he began to think seriously of her as a potential bride", and she accompanied Charles on visits to Balmoral Castle and Sandringham House.[52] Charles's cousin Norton Knatchbull and his wife told Charles that Diana appeared awestruck by his position and that he did not seem to be in love with her.[53] Meanwhile, the couple's continuing courtship attracted intense attention from the press and paparazzi. When Prince Philip told him that the media speculation would injure Diana's reputation if Charles did not come to a decision about marrying her soon, and realising that she was a suitable royal bride (according to Mountbatten's criteria), Charles construed his father's advice as a warning to proceed without further delay.[54] Charles proposed to Diana in February 1981; she accepted and they married in St Paul's Cathedral on 29 July of that year. Upon his marriage, Charles reduced his voluntary tax contribution from the profits generated by the Duchy of Cornwall from 50% to 25%.[55] The couple lived at Kensington Palace and at Highgrove House, near Tetbury, and had two children: Princes William (b. 1982) and Henry (known as "Harry") (b. 1984). Charles set a precedent by being the first royal father to be present at his children's births.[13] Within five years, the marriage was in trouble due to the couple's incompatibility and near 13-year age difference.[56][57] By November 1986, Charles had fully resumed his affair with Camilla Parker Bowles (née Shand).[58] In a videotape recorded by Peter Settelen in 1992, Diana admitted that by 1986, she had been "deeply in love with someone who worked in this environment."[59][60] It is thought she was referring to Barry Mannakee,[61] who was transferred to the Diplomatic Protection Squad in 1986 after his managers had determined that his relationship with Diana had been inappropriate.[60][62] Diana later commenced a relationship with Major James Hewitt, the family's former riding instructor.[63] Charles and Diana's evident discomfort in each other's company led to them being dubbed "The Glums" by the press.[64] Diana exposed Charles's affair with Camilla in a book by Andrew Morton, Diana, Her True Story. Audio tapes of her own extramarital flirtations also surfaced.[64] Persistent suggestions that Hewitt is Prince Harry's father have been based on a physical similarity between Hewitt and Harry. However, Harry had already been born by the time Diana's affair with Hewitt began.[65] Legal separation and divorce In December 1992, British prime minister John Major announced the couple's legal separation in Parliament. Earlier that year, the British press had published transcripts of a passionate bugged telephone conversation between Charles and Camilla from 1989, which was dubbed Camillagate by the press.[66] Charles sought public understanding in a television film, Charles: The Private Man, the Public Role, with Jonathan Dimbleby that was broadcast on 29 June 1994. In an interview in the film, he confirmed his own extramarital affair with Camilla, saying that he had rekindled their association in 1986 only after his marriage to Diana had "irretrievably broken down".[67][68] This was followed by Diana's own admission of marital troubles in an interview with the BBC current affairs show Panorama, broadcast on 20 November 1995.[69] Referring to Charles's relationship with Camilla, she said: "Well, there were three of us in this marriage, so it was a bit crowded." She also expressed doubt about her husband's suitability for kingship.[70] Charles and Diana divorced on 28 August 1996,[71] after being formally advised by the Queen in December 1995 to end the marriage.[72] Diana was killed in a car crash in Paris on 31 August of the following year; Charles flew to Paris with Diana's sisters to accompany her body back to Britain.[73] Marriage to Camilla Parker Bowles Main article: Wedding of Prince Charles and Camilla Parker Bowles Charles and Camilla in Jamaica, March 2008 The engagement of Charles and Camilla Parker Bowles was announced on 10 February 2005; he presented her with an engagement ring that had belonged to his grandmother.[74] The Queen's consent to the marriage (as required by the Royal Marriages Act 1772) was recorded in a Privy Council meeting on 2 March.[75] In Canada, the Department of Justice announced its decision that the Queen's Privy Council for Canada was not required to meet to give its consent to the marriage, as the union would not result in offspring and would have no impact on the succession to the Canadian throne.[76] Charles was the only member of the royal family to have a civil rather than a church wedding in England. Government documents from the 1950s and 1960s, published by the BBC, stated that such a marriage was illegal, though these were dismissed by Charles's spokesman,[77] and explained to be obsolete by the sitting government.[78] The marriage was scheduled to take place in a civil ceremony at Windsor Castle, with a subsequent religious blessing at St George's Chapel. The venue was subsequently changed to Windsor Guildhall, because a civil marriage at Windsor Castle would oblige the venue to be available to anyone who wished to be married there. Four days before the wedding, it was postponed from the originally scheduled date of 8 April until the following day in order to allow Charles and some of the invited dignitaries to attend the funeral of Pope John Paul II.[79] Charles's parents did not attend the civil marriage ceremony; the Queen's reluctance to attend possibly arose from her position as Supreme Governor of the Church of England.[80] The Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh did attend the service of blessing and later held a reception for the newlyweds at Windsor Castle.[81] The blessing, by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Rowan Williams, at St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, was televised.[82] Official duties See also: List of official overseas trips made by Charles III In 2008, The Daily Telegraph described Charles as the "hardest-working member of the royal family".[83] He carried out 560 official engagements in 2008,[83] 499 in 2010,[84] and over 600 in 2011. During his time as Prince of Wales, Charles undertook official duties on behalf of the Queen.[85] He officiated at investitures and attended the funerals of foreign dignitaries.[86] Charles made regular tours of Wales, fulfilling a week of engagements each summer, and attending important national occasions, such as opening the Senedd.[87] The six trustees of the Royal Collection Trust met three times a year under his chairmanship.[88] In 1970, Charles visited Bermuda to mark the Parliament of Bermuda's 350th anniversary. In his speech to parliament and referring to the actions of Charles I, Charles said "Bearing in mind I am the first Charles to have anything to do with a Parliament for 350 years, I might have turned nasty and dissolved you".[89] Charles also represented the Queen at the independence celebrations in Fiji in 1970,[90] the Bahamas in 1973,[91] Papua New Guinea in 1975,[92] Zimbabwe in 1980,[93] and Brunei in 1984.[94] In 1983, Christopher John Lewis, who had fired a shot with a .22 rifle at the Queen in 1981, attempted to escape a psychiatric hospital in order to assassinate Charles, who was visiting New Zealand with his first wife Diana and son William.[95] While Charles was visiting Australia on Australia Day in January 1994, David Kang fired two shots at him from a starting pistol in protest of the treatment of several hundred Cambodian asylum seekers held in detention camps.[96] In 1995, Charles became the first member of the royal family to visit the Republic of Ireland in an official capacity.[97] In 1997, Charles represented the Queen at the Hong Kong handover ceremony.[98] At the ceremony, he read the Queen's message to Hong Kongers, which said: "Britain is part of Hong Kong's history and Hong Kong is part of Britain's history. We are also part of each other's future".[99] In 2000, Charles revived the tradition of the Prince of Wales having an official harpist, in order to foster Welsh talent at playing the harp, the national instrument of Wales.[100] His service to the Canadian Armed Forces permits him to be informed of troop activities, and allows him to visit these troops while in Canada or overseas, taking part in ceremonial occasions.[101] For instance, in 2001 he placed a specially commissioned wreath, made from vegetation taken from French battlefields, at the Canadian Tomb of the Unknown Soldier,[102] and in 1981 he became the patron of the Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum.[103] At the funeral of Pope John Paul II in 2005, Charles unintentionally caused controversy when he shook hands with Robert Mugabe, the President of Zimbabwe, who had been seated next to him. Charles's office subsequently released a statement saying: "The Prince of Wales was caught by surprise and not in a position to avoid shaking Mr Mugabe's hand. The Prince finds the current Zimbabwean regime abhorrent. He has supported the Zimbabwe Defence and Aid Fund, which works with those being oppressed by the regime. The Prince also recently met Pius Ncube, the Archbishop of Bulawayo, an outspoken critic of the government."[104] In November 2001, Charles was struck in the face with three red carnations by teenager Alina Lebedeva, whilst he was on an official visit to Latvia.[105] Official opening of the Fourth Assembly at the Senedd in Cardiff, Wales. From left to right: Welsh first minister Carwyn Jones, Prince Charles, his wife Camilla, Queen Elizabeth II, and Senedd Llywydd Rosemary Butler, 7 June 2011 In 2010, Charles represented the Queen at the opening ceremony of the 2010 Commonwealth Games in Delhi, India.[106] He attends official events in the United Kingdom in support of Commonwealth countries, such as the Christchurch earthquake memorial service at Westminster Abbey in 2011.[107] From 15 to 17 November 2013, he represented the Queen for the first time at a Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting, in Colombo, Sri Lanka.[108] In 2013, Charles donated an unspecified sum of money to the British Red Cross Syria Crisis appeal and DEC Syria appeal, which is run by 14 British charities to help victims of the Syrian civil war.[109] According to The Guardian, it is believed that after turning 65 years old in 2013, Charles donated his state pension to an unnamed charity that supports elderly people.[110] In March 2014, Charles arranged for five million measles-rubella vaccinations for children in the Philippines on the outbreak of measles in South-East Asia. According to Clarence House, Charles was affected by news of the damage caused by Typhoon Yolanda in 2013. International Health Partners, of which he has been Patron since 2004, sent the vaccines, which are believed to protect five million children below the age of five from measles.[111] Letters sent by Charles to government ministers during 2004 and 2005 – the so-called black spider memos – presented potential embarrassment following a challenge by The Guardian newspaper to release the letters under the Freedom of Information Act 2000. In March 2015, the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom decided that Charles's letters must be released.[112] The letters were published by the Cabinet Office on 13 May 2015.[113] Reaction to the memos upon their release was largely supportive of Charles, with little criticism of him.[114] The memos were variously described in the press as "underwhelming"[115] and "harmless"[116] and that their release had "backfired on those who seek to belittle him",[117] with reaction from the public also supportive.[118] In 2015, it was revealed that Charles had access to confidential UK cabinet papers.[119] Charles's ninth visit to New Zealand in 2015 Charles and Camilla made their first joint trip to the Republic of Ireland in May 2015. The trip was called an important step in "promoting peace and reconciliation" by the British Embassy.[120] During the trip, Charles shook hands in Galway with Gerry Adams, leader of Sinn Féin and widely believed to be the leader of the IRA, the militant group that had murdered Charles's relatives in a terror attack. The Galway event was described by the media as a "historic handshake" and a "significant moment for Anglo-Irish relations".[121] In the run up to Charles's visit, two Irish republican dissidents were arrested for planning a bomb attack. Semtex and rockets were found at the Dublin home of suspect Donal Ó Coisdealbha, member of a self-styled Óglaigh na hÉireann organisation, who was later jailed for five and a half years.[122] He was connected to a veteran republican, Seamus McGrane of County Louth, a member of the Real IRA, who was jailed for 11 and a half years.[123] Charles has made frequent visits to Saudi Arabia in order to promote arms exports for companies such as BAE Systems. In 2013,[124] 2014,[125] and 2015,[126] he met with the commander of Saudi Arabia's National Guard Mutaib bin Abdullah. In February 2014, he took part in a traditional sword dance with members of the Saudi royal family at the Janariyah festival in Riyadh.[127] At the same festival, British arms company BAE Systems was honoured by Prince Salman bin Abdulaziz.[128] Charles was criticised by Scottish MP Margaret Ferrier in 2016 over his role in the sale of Typhoon fighter jets to Saudi Arabia.[129] According to Charles's biographer Catherine Mayer, a Time magazine journalist who claims to have interviewed several sources from Charles's inner circle, he "doesn't like being used to market weaponry" in deals with Saudi Arabia and other Arab Gulf states. According to Mayer, Charles has only raised his objections to being used to sell weapons abroad in private.[130] Commonwealth heads of government decided at their 2018 meeting that Charles would be the next Head of the Commonwealth after the Queen.[131] The head is chosen and therefore not hereditary.[132] With Queen Elizabeth II and other world leaders to mark the 75th anniversary of D-Day on 5 June 2019 On 7 March 2019, the Queen hosted a Buckingham Palace event to mark the 50th anniversary of Charles's investiture as the Prince of Wales. Guests at the event included the Duchess of Cornwall, the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge, the Duke and Duchess of Sussex, Prime Minister Theresa May and Welsh first minister Mark Drakeford.[133] The same month, at the request of the British government, Charles and Camilla went on an official tour to Cuba, making them the first British royalty to visit the country. The tour was seen as an effort to form a closer relationship between the UK and Cuba.[134] In January 2020, Charles became the first British patron of the International Rescue Committee, a charity which aims to help refugees and those displaced by war, persecution, or natural disaster.[135] In April 2021 and following a surge in cvd-19 cases in India, Charles issued a statement, announcing the launch of an emergency appeal for India by the British Asian Trust, of which he is the founder. The appeal, called Oxygen for India, helped with buying oxygen concentrators for hospitals in need.[136] On 25 March 2020, it was announced that Charles had contracted cvd-19 during the pandemic. He and his wife subsequently isolated at their Birkhall residence. Camilla was also tested but returned a negative result.[137][138] Clarence House stated that he showed "mild symptoms" but "remains in good health". They further explained, "It is not possible to ascertain from whom the prince caught the virus owing to the high number of engagements he carried out in his public role during recent weeks."[138] Several newspapers were critical that Charles and Camilla were tested promptly at a time when many NHS doctors, nurses and patients had been unable to be tested expeditiously.[139] On 30 March 2020, Clarence House announced that Charles had recovered from the virus, and that, after consulting his doctor, he was no longer isolating.[140] Two days later, he stated in a video that he would continue to practise social distancing.[141] In October 2020, a letter sent by Charles to Australian governor-general John Kerr after the 1975 dismissal from office of Prime Minister Gough Whitlam was released as a part of the collection of palace letters regarding the 1975 Australian constitutional crisis.[142] In the letter, Charles appeared to be supportive of Kerr's decision, writing that what Kerr "did last year was right and the courageous thing to do – and most Australians seemed to endorse your decision when it came to the point," adding that he should not worry about "demonstrations and stupidities" that arose following his decision.[142] Delivering a speech in Bridgetown, after Barbados became a republic, November 2021 In November 2021, Charles attended the ceremonies held to mark Barbados's transition into a parliamentary republic, which removed the Queen as Barbadian head of state.[143] Charles was invited by Prime Minister Mia Mottley as the future head of the Commonwealth,[144] and it was the first time that a member of the royal family attended the transition of a realm to a republic.[145] On 10 February 2022, it was announced that Charles had tested positive for cvd-19 for a second time and was self-isolating.[146] His wife later also confirmed contracting the virus, followed by the Queen herself 10 days after Charles's second diagnosis.[147] Charles and his wife had received doses of a cvd-19 vaccine in February 2021.[148] Delivering the Queen's Speech on behalf of his mother, May 2022 In May 2022, Charles attended the State Opening of Parliament and delivered the Queen's Speech on behalf of his mother as a counsellor of state for the first time.[149] In June 2022, The Times reported that Charles had privately described the UK Government's Rwanda asylum plan as "appalling" and feared that it would overshadow the June Commonwealth Heads of Government meeting in Rwanda, where Charles represented the Queen.[150] It was later reported that cabinet ministers had warned Charles to avoid making political comments, as they feared a constitutional crisis could arise if he continued to make such statements once he became king.[151] Reign Pre-accession polling Prior to acceding to the British throne, opinion polls put Charles's popularity with the British people at 42%,[152] with a 2018 BMG Research poll finding that 46% of Britons wanted Charles to abdicate immediately upon accession to the throne, in favour of William.[153] A 2021 opinion poll reported that 60% of the British public had a favourable opinion of him.[154] Accession and crtion plans See also: Proclamation of accession of Charles III and crtion of Charles III and Camilla Charles III walking in Elizabeth II's funeral cortège towards Westminster Hall six days after her death Charles acceded to the British throne on 8 September 2022, following the death of his mother, Queen Elizabeth II. Charles was the longest-serving British heir apparent, surpassing Edward VII's record on 20 April 2011.[155] When he became monarch at the age of 73, he was the oldest person to do so, the previous record holder being William IV, who was 64 when he became king in 1830.[156] Plans for Charles's crtion have been made for many years, under the code name Operation Golden Orb.[157] Reports before his accession suggested that Charles's crtion would be simpler and smaller in scale than his mother's in 1953,[158] with the ceremony expected to be "shorter, smaller, less expensive and more representative of different faiths and community groups – falling in line with the King's wish to reflect the ethnic diversity of modern Britain".[159] Nonetheless, the crtion will be a Church of England ceremony and will require a crtion oath, the anointment, the delivery of the orb and the enthronement.[160] There had been speculation as to what regnal name Charles would choose upon his succession to the throne. In 2005, it was reported that Charles had suggested he might choose to reign as George VII in honour of his grandfather George VI, and to avoid associations with previous royals named Charles.[161][fn 6] Charles's office said at the time that no decision had yet been made.[162] Following the death of Queen Elizabeth II, Clarence House confirmed that Charles would use the regnal name "Charles III".[163] Charles gave his first speech to the nation on 9 September at 18:00 BST, in which he mourned his late mother and proclaimed his elder son, William, Prince of Wales.[164] On 10 September 2022, Charles was publicly proclaimed king by the Accession Council. The ceremony was televised for the first time.[165][131] Attendees included Prince William, Queen Camilla, British prime minister Liz Truss, and her predecessors John Major, Tony Blair, Gordon Brown, David Cameron, Theresa May and Boris Johnson.[166] The crtion of Charles III and Camilla is due to take place on 6 May 2023 at Westminster Abbey.[167] Philanthropy and charity Since founding the Prince's Trust in 1976, Charles has established 16 more charitable organisations and now serves as president of all of those.[168][85] Together, these form a loose alliance called the Prince's Charities, which describes itself as "the largest multi-cause charitable enterprise in the United Kingdom, raising over £100 million annually ... [and is] active across a broad range of areas including education and young people, environmental sustainability, the built environment, responsible business and enterprise and international."[168] In 2010, the Prince's Charities Canada was established in a similar fashion to its namesake in the UK.[169] Charles is also patron of over 400 other charities and organisations.[170] He uses his tours of Canada as a way to help draw attention to youth, the disabled, the environment, the arts, medicine, the elderly, heritage conservation, and education.[171] In Canada, Charles has supported humanitarian projects. Along with his two sons, he took part in ceremonies that marked the 1998 International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination.[171] Charles has also set up the Prince's Charities Australia, which is based in Melbourne, Victoria. The Prince's Charities Australia is to provide a coordinating presence for Charles's Australian and international charitable endeavours.[172] Charles was one of the first world leaders to express strong concerns about the human rights record of Romanian dictator Nicolae Ceaușescu, initiating objections in the international arena,[173] and subsequently supported the FARA Foundation,[170] a charity for Romanian orphans and abandoned children.[174] Personal interests Built environment Charles has openly expressed his views on architecture and urban planning; he fostered the advancement of New Classical Architecture and asserted that he "care[s] deeply about issues such as the environment, architecture, inner-city renewal, and the quality of life."[175] In a speech given for the 150th anniversary of the Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) on 30 May 1984, he memorably described a proposed extension to the National Gallery in London as a "monstrous carbuncle on the face of a much-loved friend" and deplored the "glass stumps and concrete towers" of modern architecture.[176] He asserted that "it is possible, and important in human terms, to respect old buildings, street plans and traditional scales and at the same time not to feel guilty about a preference for facades, ornaments and soft materials,"[176] called for local community involvement in architectural choices, and asked: Why can't we have those curves and arches that express feeling in design? What is wrong with them? Why has everything got to be vertical, straight, unbending, only at right angles – and functional?[176] At the newly opened At-Bristol, 14 June 2000 Charles's book and BBC documentary A Vision of Britain (1987) were also critical of modern architecture, and he has continued to campaign for traditional urbanism, human scale, restoration of historic buildings, and sustainable design,[177] despite criticism in the press. Two of his charities (the Prince's Regeneration Trust and the Prince's Foundation for Building Community, which were later merged into one charity) promote his views, and the village of Poundbury was built on land owned by the Duchy of Cornwall to a master plan by Léon Krier under the guidance of Charles and in line with his philosophy.[175] Charles helped establish a national trust for the built environment in Canada after lamenting, in 1996, the unbridled destruction of many of the country's historic urban cores. He offered his assistance to the Department of Canadian Heritage in creating a trust modelled on Britain's National Trust, a plan that was implemented with the passage of the 2007 Canadian federal budget.[178] In 1999, Charles agreed to the use of his title for the Prince of Wales Prize for Municipal Heritage Leadership, awarded by the Heritage Canada Foundation to municipal governments that have shown sustained commitment to the conservation of historic places.[179] While visiting the United States and surveying the damage caused by Hurricane Katrina, Charles received the National Building Museum's Vincent Scully Prize in 2005, for his efforts in regard to architecture; he donated $25,000 of the prize money towards restoring storm-damaged communities.[180] From 1997, Charles has visited Romania to view and highlight the destruction of Orthodox monasteries and Transylvanian Saxon villages during the Communist rule of Nicolae Ceaușescu.[181][182] Charles is patron of the Mihai Eminescu Trust, a Romanian conservation and regeneration organisation,[183] and has purchased a house in Romania.[184] Historian Tom Gallagher wrote in the Romanian newspaper România Liberă in 2006 that Charles had been offered the Romanian throne by monarchists in that country; an offer that was reportedly turned down,[185] but Buckingham Palace denied the reports.[186] Charles also has "a deep understanding of Islamic art and architecture", and has been involved in the construction of a building and garden at the Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies that combine Islamic and Oxford architectural styles.[187] Charles has occasionally intervened in projects that employ architectural styles such as modernism and functionalism.[188][189] In 2009, Charles wrote to the Qatari royal family, the developers of the Chelsea Barracks site, labelling Lord Rogers's design for the site "unsuitable". Subsequently, Rogers was removed from the project and the Prince's Foundation for the Built Environment was appointed to propose an alternative.[190] Rogers claimed the Prince had also intervened to block his designs for the Royal Opera House and Paternoster Square, and condemned Charles's actions as "an abuse of power" and "unconstitutional".[190] Lord Foster, Zaha Hadid, Jacques Herzog, Jean Nouvel, Renzo Piano, and Frank Gehry, among others, wrote a letter to The Sunday Times complaining that the Prince's "private comments" and "behind-the-scenes lobbying" subverted the "open and democratic planning process".[191] Piers Gough and other architects condemned Charles's views as "elitist" in a letter encouraging colleagues to boycott a speech given by Charles to RIBA in 2009.[189] CPC Group, the developer of the project, took a case against Qatari Diar to the High Court, which described Charles's intervention as "unwelcome".[192] After the case was settled, the CPC Group apologised to him "for any offence caused by the decision to commence litigation against Qatari Diar and the allegations made by CPC during the course of the proceedings".[192] In 2010, the Prince's Foundation for the Built Environment decided to help reconstruct and redesign buildings in Port-au-Prince, Haiti after the capital was destroyed by the 2010 Haiti earthquake.[193] The foundation is known for refurbishing historic buildings in Kabul, Afghanistan and Kingston, Jamaica. The project has been called the "biggest challenge yet" for the Prince's Foundation for the Built Environment.[194] For his work as patron of New Classical Architecture, in 2012 Charles was awarded the Driehaus Architecture Prize for patronage. The prize, awarded by the University of Notre Dame, is considered the highest architecture award for New Classical Architecture and urban planning.[195] Livery company commitments The Worshipful Company of Carpenters installed Charles as an Honorary Liveryman "in recognition of his interest in London's architecture."[196] Charles is also Permanent Master of the Worshipful Company of Shipwrights, a Freeman of the Worshipful Company of Drapers, an Honorary Freeman of the Worshipful Company of Musicians, an Honorary Member of the Court of Assistants of the Worshipful Company of Goldsmiths, and a Royal Liveryman of the Worshipful Company of Gardeners.[197] Natural environment Charles and Camilla meeting Federal Emergency Management Agency officials in Louisiana, as they arrive to tour the damage created by Hurricane Katrina, November 2005 Since the 1970s, Charles has promoted environmental awareness.[198] At the age of 21, he delivered his first speech on environmental issues in his capacity as the chairman of the Welsh Countryside Committee.[199] In order to decrease his carbon footprint, he has used biomass boilers for heating Birkhall, where he has also installed a hydroelectric turbine in the river beside the estate. He has utilised solar panels at Clarence House and Highgrove, and – besides using electric cars on his estates – runs his Aston Martin DB6 on E85.[200] An avid gardener, Charles has also emphasised the importance of talking to plants, stating that "I happily talk to the plants and trees, and listen to them. I think it's absolutely crucial".[201] Upon moving into Highgrove House, Charles developed an interest in organic farming, which culminated in the 1990 launch of his own organic brand, Duchy Originals,[202] which now sells more than 200 different sustainably produced products, from food to garden furniture; the profits (over £6 million by 2010) are donated to the Prince's Charities.[202][203] His organic interest extends beyond farming into landscaped spaces and Highgrove House practices organic lawn management to increase biodiversity.[204] Documenting work on his estate, Charles co-authored (with Charles Clover, environment editor of The Daily Telegraph) Highgrove: An Experiment in Organic Gardening and Farming, published in 1993, and offers his patronage to Garden Organic. Along similar lines, Charles became involved with farming and various industries within it, regularly meeting with farmers to discuss their trade. Although the 2001 foot-and-mouth epidemic in England prevented Charles from visiting organic farms in Saskatchewan, he met the farmers at Assiniboia town hall.[205] In 2004, he founded the Mutton Renaissance Campaign, which aims to support British sheep farmers and make mutton more attractive to Britons.[206] His organic farming has attracted media criticism: According to The Independent in October 2006, "the story of Duchy Originals has involved compromises and ethical blips, wedded to a determined merchandising programme."[207] A prominent critic of the practice,[208] Charles III has also spoken against the use of GM crops and in a letter to British prime minister Tony Blair in 1998, Charles criticised the development of genetically modified foods.[209] He repeated the same sentiments in 2008, arguing that having "one form of clever genetic engineering after another then … will be guaranteed to cause the biggest disaster environmentally of all time."[210] In 2007, Charles received the tenth annual Global Environmental Citizen Award from the Harvard Medical School's Center for Health and the Global Environment, the director of which, Eric Chivian, stated: "For decades the Prince of Wales has been a champion of the natural world ... He has been a world leader in efforts to improve energy efficiency and in reducing the discharge of toxic substances on land, and into the air and the oceans".[211] Charles's travels by private jet drew criticism from Plane Stupid's Joss Garman.[212] In 2007, Charles launched the Prince's May Day Network, which encourages businesses to take action on climate change. Speaking to the European Parliament on 14 February 2008, he called for European Union leadership in the war against climate change. During the standing ovation that followed, Nigel Farage, the leader of the United Kingdom Independence Party (UKIP), remained seated and went on to describe Charles's advisers as "naive and foolish at best."[213] In a speech to the Low Carbon Prosperity Summit in a European Parliament chamber on 9 February 2011, Charles said that climate change sceptics are playing "a reckless game of roulette" with the planet's future and are having a "corrosive effect" on public opinion. He also articulated the need to protect fisheries and the Amazon rainforest, and to make low-carbon emissions affordable and competitive.[214] In 2011, Charles received the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds Medal for his engagement with the environment, such as the conservation of rainforests.[215] On 27 August 2012, Charles addressed the International Union for Conservation of Nature – World Conservation Congress, supporting the view that grazing animals are needed to keep soils and grassland productive: I have been particularly fascinated, for example, by the work of a remarkable man called Allan Savory, in Zimbabwe and other semi arid areas, who has argued for years against the prevailing expert view that is the simple numbers of cattle that drive overgrazing and cause fertile land to become desert. On the contrary, as he has since shown so graphically, the land needs the presence of feeding animals and their droppings for the cycle to be complete so that soils and grassland areas stay productive. Such that, if you take grazers off the land and lock them away in vast feedlots, the land dies.[216] In February 2014, Charles visited the Somerset levels to meet residents affected by winter flooding. During his visit, Charles remarked that "There's nothing like a jolly good disaster to get people to start doing something. The tragedy is that nothing happened for so long." He pledged a £50,000 donation, provided by the Prince's Countryside Fund, to help families and businesses.[217] In December 2015, Charles delivered a speech at the opening ceremony for COP21, making a plea to industries to put an end to practices that cause deforestation.[218] In August 2019, it was announced that Charles had collaborated with British fashion designers Vin and Omi to produce a line of clothing made out of nettles found in his Highgrove estate. Nettles are a type of plant which are usually "perceived to have no value". The Highgrove plant waste was also used to create the jewellery worn with the dresses.[219] In September 2020, Charles launched RE:TV, an online platform featuring short films and articles on issues such as climate change and sustainability. He serves as the platform's editor-in-chief.[220] The platform later partnered with Amazon Prime Video and WaterBear, another streaming platform dedicated to environmental issues.[221] In the same month, he stated in a speech that a military-style response similar to the Marshall Plan was required to combat climate change.[222] In January 2020, Charles launched the Sustainable Markets Initiative at the World Economic Forum's annual meeting in Davos, a project which encourages putting sustainability at the centre of all activities.[223] In May 2020, his Sustainable Markets Initiative and the World Economic Forum launched the Great Reset project, a five-point plan concerned with enhancing sustainable economic growth following the global recession caused by the cvd-19 pandemic.[224] In January 2021, Charles launched Terra Carta ("Earth Charter"), a sustainable finance charter that would ask its signatories to follow a set of rules towards becoming more sustainable and make investments in projects and causes that help with preserving the environment.[225] In July 2021, Charles and Jony Ive announced the Terra Carta Design Lab, a competition conceived by the Royal College of Art to find solutions to climate change and environmental issues, winners of which would be supported financially and introduced to the industry leads of the Sustainable Markets Initiative.[226] In September 2021, he launched the Food for the Future initiative, a programme with contributions from Jimmy Doherty and Jamie Oliver which aims to educate secondary school children about the food system and eliminating food waste.[227] In his role as patron of the National Hedgelaying Society, Charles has hosted receptions for the organisation's rural competition at his Highgrove estate to assist with preserving hedgerows planted in the UK.[228] In June 2021, Charles attended a reception hosted by the Queen during the 47th G7 summit, and a meeting between G7 leaders and sustainable industry CEOs to discuss governmental and corporate solutions to environmental problems.[229] In October 2021, he delivered a speech at the 2021 G20 Rome summit, describing COP26 as "the last chance saloon" for preventing climate change and asking for actions that would lead to a green-led sustainable economy.[230] In his speech at the opening ceremony for COP26, he repeated his sentiments from the previous year, stating that "a vast military-style campaign" was needed "to marshal the strength of the global private sector" for tackling climate change.[231] In 2021, Charles spoke to the BBC about the environment and said two days a week he eats no meat nor fish and one day a week he eats no dairy products.[232] In 2022, it was reported that he eats a breakfast of fruit salad, seeds and tea. He does not eat lunch, but takes a break for tea at 5 p.m. and eats dinner at 8:30 p.m. and then returns to work until midnight or after.[233] Charles, who is patron of the Cambridge Institute for Sustainability Leadership, launched the Climate Action Scholarships for students from small island nations in partnership with University of Cambridge, University of Toronto, University of Melbourne, McMaster University and University of Montreal in March 2022.[234] In September 2022, Charles hosted the Global Allergy Symposium at Dumfries House with the Natasha Allergy Research Foundation and 16 allergy experts from around the world to discuss factors behind new emerging allergies, including biodiversity loss and climate change.[235] In October 2022, it was reported that British prime minister Liz Truss had advised the King against attending COP27, to which he had agreed.[236] Alternative medicine See also: The Prince's Foundation for Integrated Health and The College of Medicine Charles and Camilla with NIH director Elias Zerhouni (second from left) and Surgeon-General Richard Carmona (right), November 2005 Charles has controversially championed alternative medicine.[237] He first expressed his interest in alternative medicine publicly in December 1982 in an address to the British Medical Association (BMA).[238] This speech was seen as 'combative' and 'critical' of modern medicine, and was met with anger by some medical professionals.[239] The Prince's Foundation for Integrated Health (FIH) attracted opposition from the scientific and medical community over its campaign encouraging general practitioners to offer herbal and other alternative treatments to National Health Service patients.[240][241] In June 2004, during a speech to healthcare professionals at a conference, he advocated using Gerson therapy treatments, such as coffee enemas, to treat cancer patients and said he knew of a terminally ill cancer patient who was cured with them.[242][241][243] He said: "I know of one patient who turned to Gerson Therapy having been told that she was suffering from terminal cancer, and would not survive another course of chemotherapy. Happily, seven years later she is alive and well."[242] These comments drew criticism from medical professionals such as Michael Baum.[244] In May 2006, Charles made a speech at the World Health Assembly in Geneva, urging the integration of conventional and alternative medicine and arguing for homeopathy.[245] In April 2008, The Times published a letter from Edzard Ernst, Professor of Complementary Medicine at the University of Exeter, which asked the FIH to recall two guides promoting alternative medicine, saying "the majority of alternative therapies appear to be clinically ineffective, and many are downright dangerous." A speaker for the FIH countered the criticism by stating: "We entirely reject the accusation that our online publication Complementary Healthcare: A Guide contains any misleading or inaccurate claims about the benefits of complementary therapies. On the contrary, it treats people as adults and takes a responsible approach by encouraging people to look at reliable sources of information ... so that they can make informed decisions. The foundation does not promote complementary therapies."[246] That year, Ernst published a book with Simon Singh, mockingly dedicated to "HRH the Prince of Wales", called Trick or Treatment: Alternative Medicine on Trial. The last chapter is highly critical of Charles's advocacy of complementary and alternative treatments.[247] Charles's Duchy Originals produced a variety of complementary medicinal products including a "Detox Tincture" that Edzard Ernst denounced as "financially exploiting the vulnerable" and "outright quackery".[248] In 2009, the Advertising Standards Authority criticised an email that Duchy Originals had sent out to advertise its Echina-Relief, Hyperi-Lift and Detox Tinctures products saying that it was misleading.[248] Charles personally wrote at least seven letters[249] to the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) shortly before they relaxed the rules governing labelling of such herbal products, a move that has been widely condemned by scientists and medical bodies.[250] In October 2009, it was reported that Charles had personally lobbied the Health Secretary, Andy Burnham, regarding greater provision of alternative treatments in the NHS.[248] In April 2010, following accounting irregularities, a former official at the FIH and his wife were arrested for fraud believed to total £300,000.[251] Four days later, the FIH announced its closure, claiming that it "has achieved its key objective of promoting the use of integrated health."[252] The charity's finance director, accountant George Gray, was convicted of theft totalling £253,000 and sentenced to three years in prison.[253] The FIH was re-branded and re-launched later in 2010 as The College of Medicine,[253][254] of which Charles became a patron in 2019.[255] In 2016, Charles said in a speech that he used homeopathic veterinary medicines to reduce antibiotic use at his farm.[256] He drew criticism after becoming a patron of the Faculty of Homeopathy on 27 June 2019.[257] Sports From his youth until 1992, Charles was an avid player of competitive polo. He continued to play informally, including for charity, until 2005.[258] He was occasionally injured after falling off horses,[259] and underwent two operations in 1990 to fix fractures in his right arm.[260] Charles also frequently took part in fox hunting until the sport was banned in the United Kingdom in 2005. By the late 1990s, opposition to the activity was growing when Charles's participation was viewed as a "political statement" by those who were opposed to it. The League Against Cruel Sports launched an attack against Charles after he took his sons on the Beaufort Hunt in 1999. At that time, the government was trying to ban hunting with hounds.[261] In 2001, he broke a small bone in his left shoulder while hunting in Derbyshire.[262] Charles has been a keen salmon angler since youth and supports Orri Vigfússon's efforts to protect the North Atlantic salmon. He frequently fishes the River Dee in Aberdeenshire, Scotland, while he claims his most special angling memories are from his time in Vopnafjörður, Iceland.[263] Charles is a supporter of Burnley Football Club.[264] Aside from hunting, Charles has also participated in target rifle competitions, representing the House of Lords in the Vizianagram Match (Lords vs. Commons) at Bisley.[265] He became President of the British National Rifle Association in 1977.[266] Visual, performing and contemporary arts Charles is president or patron of more than 20 performing arts organisations, which include the Royal College of Music, the Royal Opera, the English Chamber Orchestra, the Philharmonia Orchestra, Welsh National Opera, and the Purcell School. In 2000, he revived the tradition of appointing harpists to the Royal Court, by appointing an Official Harpist to the Prince of Wales. As an undergraduate at Cambridge, he played the cello and has sung with the Bach Choir twice.[267] He was a member of Dryden Society, Trinity College's drama group, and appeared in sketches and revues.[268] Charles founded The Prince's Foundation for Children and The Arts in 2002, to help more children experience the arts first-hand. He is president of the Royal Shakespeare Company and attends performances in Stratford-Upon-Avon, supports fundraising events and attends the company's annual general meeting.[267] He enjoys comedy,[269] and is interested in illusionism, becoming a member of The Magic Circle after passing his audition in 1975 by performing the "cups and balls" effect.[270] Charles has also been patron of the British Film Institute since 1978.[271] Charles is a keen and accomplished watercolourist who has exhibited and sold a number of his works to raise money for his charities and also published books on the subject. To mark the 25th anniversary of his investiture as the Prince of Wales in 1994, the Royal Mail issued a series of postage stamps which featured his paintings.[272] For his 50th birthday, 50 of his watercolours were exhibited at Hampton Court Palace.[272] In 2001, 20 lithographs of his watercolour paintings illustrating his country estates were exhibited at the Florence International Biennale of Contemporary Art.[273] In 2016, it was estimated that he had sold lithographs of his watercolours for a total of £2 million from a shop at his Highgrove House residence.[272] For his 70th birthday in 2018, his works were exhibited at the National Gallery of Australia.[272] In 2022, 79 of his paintings were put on display in London.[272] He is Honorary President of the Royal Academy of Arts Development Trust.[274] Charles was awarded the 2011 Montblanc de la Culture Arts Patronage Award by the Montblanc Cultural Foundation for his support and commitment to the arts, particularly in regard to young people.[275] On 23 April 2016, Charles appeared in a comedy sketch for the Royal Shakespeare Company's Shakespeare Live! at the Royal Shakespeare Theatre, to commemorate the 400th anniversary of William Shakespeare's death in 1616. The event was televised live by the BBC. Charles made a surprise entrance to settle the disputed delivery of Hamlet's celebrated line, "To be or not to be, that is the question".[276] In January 2022, Charles commissioned seven artists to paint portraits of seven Holocaust survivors. The paintings were exhibited at the Queen's Gallery in Buckingham Palace and at the Palace of Holyroodhouse and were featured in a BBC Two documentary titled Survivors: Portraits of the Holocaust.[277] Publications Main article: Bibliography of Charles III Charles is the author of several books that reflect his own interests. He has also contributed a foreword or preface to books by other writers and has also written, presented and has been featured in documentary films.[278] Religion and philosophy With Czech Orthodox priest Jaroslav Šuvarský in 2010 The King is the Supreme Governor of the Church of England.[279] He is also a member of the Church of Scotland, and he swore an oath to uphold that church immediately after he was proclaimed king in September 2022.[2] Charles was confirmed at age 16 by Archbishop of Canterbury Michael Ramsey at Easter 1965, in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle.[280] He attends services at various Anglican churches close to Highgrove,[281] and attends the Church of Scotland's Crathie Kirk with the rest of the royal family when staying at Balmoral Castle. In 2000, he was appointed as Lord High Commissioner to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland. Charles has visited (amid some secrecy) Eastern Orthodox monasteries several times on Mount Athos[282] as well as in Romania[181] and Serbia.[283] Charles is also patron of the Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies at the University of Oxford, and in the 2000s, he inaugurated the Markfield Institute of Higher Education, which is dedicated to Islamic studies in a plural multicultural context.[187][284] Laurens van der Post became a friend of Charles in 1977; he was dubbed his "spiritual guru" and was godfather to Charles's son, Prince William.[285] From van der Post, Charles developed a focus on philosophy and interest in other religions.[286] Charles expressed his philosophical views in his 2010 book, Harmony: A New Way of Looking at Our World,[287] which won a Nautilus Book Award.[288] In November 2016, he attended the consecration of St Thomas Cathedral, Acton, to be Britain's first Syriac Orthodox cathedral.[289] In October 2019, he attended the canonisation of Cardinal Newman.[290] Charles visited Eastern Church leaders in Jerusalem in January 2020 culminating in an ecumenical service in the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem, after which he walked through that city accompanied by Christian and Muslim dignitaries.[291] In his 1994 documentary with Jonathan Dimbleby, Charles said that he wished to be seen as the "Defender of Faith" as king, rather than the monarch's traditional title of "Defender of the Faith", in order to respect other people's religious traditions.[292] This attracted controversy at the time, as well as speculation that the crtion oath may be altered.[293] He stated in 2015 that he would retain the title of "Defender of the Faith", whilst "ensuring that other people's faiths can also be practised", which he sees as a duty of the Church of England.[294] Media image Since his birth, Charles has received close media attention, which increased as he matured. It has been an ambivalent relationship, largely impacted by his marriages to Diana and Camilla and their aftermath, but also centred on his future conduct as king, such as the 2014 play King Charles III.[295] Known for expressing his opinions, when asked during an interview to mark his 70th birthday whether this would continue in the same way once he is king, he responded "No. It won't. I'm not that stupid. I do realise that it is a separate exercise being sovereign. So, of course, you know, I understand entirely how that should operate".[296] Charles and Diana with US president Ronald Reagan (at right) and First Lady Nancy Reagan (second from right) in November 1985 Described as the "world's most eligible bachelor" in the late 1970s,[297] Charles was subsequently overshadowed by Diana.[298] After her death, the media regularly breached Charles's privacy and printed exposés. In 2003, Diana's butler Paul Burrell published a note that he claimed had been written by Diana in 1995, in which there were allegations that Charles was "planning 'an accident' in [Diana's] car, brake failure and serious head injury" so that he could marry again.[299] When questioned by the Metropolitan Police inquiry team as a part of Operation Paget, Charles told the authorities that he did not know about his former wife's note from 1995 and could not understand why she had these feelings.[300] Other people who were formerly connected with Charles have betrayed his confidence. In 1995, he obtained an injunction that prevented a former housekeeper's memoirs from being published in the United Kingdom, although they eventually sold 100,000 copies in the United States.[301] Later, an ex-member of his household handed the press an internal memo in which Charles commented on ambition and opportunity, and which was widely interpreted as blaming meritocracy for creating a combative atmosphere in society. Charles responded: "In my view, it is just as great an achievement to be a plumber or a bricklayer as it is to be a lawyer or a doctor".[302] Charity donations In 2021 and 2022, two of Charles's charities, the Prince's Foundation and the Prince of Wales's Charitable Fund, came under scrutiny for accepting donations that were deemed inappropriate by the media. In August 2021, it was announced that the Prince's Foundation was launching an investigation into the reports that middlemen took cuts for setting up dinners involving wealthy donors and Charles, at that time Prince of Wales, with prices as high as £100,000 and the fixers taking up to 25% of the fees.[303] After temporarily stepping down, Charles's aide Michael Fawcett resigned from his role as chief executive of the Prince's Foundation in November 2021,[304] following reports that he had fixed a CBE for Saudi businessman Mahfouz Marei Mubarak bin Mahfouz who donated more than £1.5 million to royal charities contrary to section 1 of the Honours (Prevention of Abuses) Act 1925.[305] Charles gave Mahfouz his Honorary CBE at a private ceremony in the Blue Drawing Room at Buckingham Palace in November 2016,[306] though the event was not published in the Court Circular.[307] Clarence House responded that Charles had "no knowledge of the alleged offer of honours or British citizenship on the basis of donation to his charities and fully supports the investigation".[308] The auditing firm EY, which carried out the investigation, published a summary report in December 2021, stating that Fawcett had co-ordinated with "fixers", but there was "no evidence that trustees at the time were aware of these communications".[309] The Charity Commission launched its own investigation into allegations that the donations meant for the Prince's Foundation had been instead sent to the Mahfouz Foundation.[310] In 2021, the foundation was also criticised for accepting a £200,000 donation from Russian convict,[311] Dmitry Leus,[312] whom Charles thanked in a letter,[313] and a £500,000 donation from Taiwanese fugitive Bruno Wang.[314] The donations by the Russian convict led to an investigation by the Scottish Charity Regulator.[315] In February 2022 the Metropolitan Police launched an investigation into the cash-for-honours allegations linked to the foundation.[316] In June 2022, The Times reported that between 2011 and 2015 Charles accepted €3 million in cash from the prime minister of Qatar, Hamad bin Jassim bin Jaber Al Thani.[317] The funds were said to be in the form of €500 notes, handed over in person in three tranches, in a suitcase, holdall and carrier bags.[317][318] Charles's meetings with Al Thani did not appear in the Court Circular.[317] Coutts collected the cash and each payment was deposited into the accounts of the Prince of Wales's Charitable Fund.[318] There is no evidence that the payments were illegal or that it was not intended for the money to go to the charity.[318] The Charity Commission announced they would review the information,[319] and in July 2022, they announced that they would not be launching an investigation into the donations as the information submitted had provided "sufficient assurance" that due diligence had taken place.[320] In the same month, The Times reported that on the Prince of Wales's Charitable Fund receiving a donation of £1 million from Bakr bin Laden and Shafiq bin Laden, both half-brothers of Osama bin Laden, during a private meeting in 2013.[321][322] Charles and Bakr bin Laden had known each other since 2000.[322] The Charity Commission described the decision to accept donations as a "matter for trustees" and added that based on the available information no investigation was required.[323] In June 2022, a senior palace aide said that cash donations would no longer be accepted.[324] Reaction to press treatment In 1994, German tabloid Bild published nude photos of Charles that were taken while he was vacationing in Le Barroux.[325] They were reportedly put up for sale for £30,000.[325] Buckingham Palace reacted by stating that it was "unjustifiable for anybody to suffer this sort of intrusion".[326] In 2002, Charles, "so often a target of the press, got his chance to return fire" when addressing "scores of editors, publishers and other media executives" gathered at St Bride's Fleet Street to celebrate 300 years of journalism.[327][328] Defending public servants from "the corrosive drip of constant criticism", he noted that the press had been "awkward, cantankerous, cynical, bloody-minded, at times intrusive, at times inaccurate and at times deeply unfair and harmful to individuals and to institutions."[328] But, he concluded, regarding his own relations with the press, "from time to time we are probably both a bit hard on each other, exaggerating the downsides and ignoring the good points in each."[328] Charles's anguish was recorded in his private comments to Prince William, caught on a microphone during a press photo-call in 2005 and published in the national press. After a question from the BBC's royal correspondent, Nicholas Witchell, Charles muttered: "These bloody people. I can't bear that man. I mean, he's so awful, he really is."[329] In 2006, Charles filed a court case against the Mail on Sunday, after excerpts of his personal journals were published, revealing his opinions on matters such as the transfer of sovereignty of Hong Kong to China in 1997, in which Charles described the Chinese government officials as "appalling old waxworks".[330][85] Mark Bolland, his ex-private secretary, declared in a statement to the High Court that Charles "would readily embrace the political aspects of any contentious issue he was interested in ... He carried it out in a very considered, thoughtful and researched way. He often referred to himself as a 'dissident' working against the prevailing political consensus."[330] Jonathan Dimbleby reported that Charles "has accumulated a number of certainties about the state of the world and does not relish contradiction."[331] In 2015, The Independent noted that Charles would only speak to broadcasters "on the condition they have signed a 15-page contract, demanding that Clarence House attends both the 'rough cut' and 'fine cut' edits of films and, if it is unhappy with the final product, can 'remove the contribution in its entirety from the programme'."[332] This contract stipulated that all questions directed at Charles must be pre-approved and vetted by representatives of Charles.[332] Guest appearances on television Charles has occasionally appeared on television. In 1984, he read his children's book The Old Man of Lochnagar for the BBC's Jackanory series. The UK soap opera crtion Street featured an appearance by Charles during the show's 40th anniversary in 2000,[333] as did the New Zealand young adult cartoon series bro'Town (2005), after he attended a performance by the show's creators during a tour of the country.[334] Charles was interviewed with Princes William and Harry by Ant & Dec to mark the 30th anniversary of the Prince's Trust in 2006[335] and in 2016 was interviewed by them again along with his sons and the Duchess of Cornwall to mark the 40th anniversary.[336] His saving of the Scottish stately home Dumfries House was the subject of Alan Titchmarsh's documentary Royal Restoration, which aired on TV in May 2012.[337] Also in May 2012, Charles tried his hand at being a weather presenter for the BBC, reporting the forecast for Scotland as part of their annual week at Holyrood Palace alongside Christopher Blanchett. He injected humour in his report, asking, "Who the hell wrote this script?" as references were made to royal residences.[338] In December 2015, Channel 4 News revealed that interviews with Charles were subject to a contract that restricts questions to those previously approved, and gives his staff oversight of editing and the right to "remove the contribution in its entirety from the programme". Channel 4 News decided not to proceed with an interview on this basis, which some journalists believed would put them at risk of breaching the Ofcom Broadcasting Code on editorial independence and transparency.[339] Residences and finance Clarence House, Charles's official residence as Prince of Wales from 2003 Clarence House, previously the residence of Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother, was Charles's official London residence from 2003 after being renovated at a cost of £4.5 million.[340][341] He previously shared Apartments 8 and 9 at Kensington Palace with his first wife Diana, before moving to York House, St James's Palace, which remained his principal residence until 2003.[341] As prince, his primary source of income was generated from the Duchy of Cornwall, which owns 133,658 acres of land (around 54,090 hectares), including farming, residential, and commercial properties, as well as an investment portfolio. Highgrove House in Gloucestershire is owned by the Duchy of Cornwall, having been purchased for his use in 1980, and which Charles rents for £336,000 per annum.[342] The Public Accounts Committee published its 25th report into the Duchy of Cornwall accounts in November 2013 noting that the duchy performed well in 2012–13, increasing its total income and producing an overall surplus of £19.1 million.[343] In 2007, Charles purchased a 192-acre property (150 acres of grazing and parkland, and 40 acres of woodland) in Carmarthenshire, and applied for permission to convert the farm into a Welsh home for him and the Duchess of Cornwall, to be rented out as holiday flats when the couple is not in residence.[344] A neighbouring family said the proposals flouted local planning regulations, and the application was put on hold temporarily while a report was drafted on how the alterations would affect the local bat population.[345] Charles and Camilla first stayed at the new property, called Llwynywermod, in June 2008.[346] They also stay at Birkhall for some holidays, which is a private residence on the Balmoral Castle estate in Scotland, and was previously used by Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother.[347] In 2016, it was reported that his estates received £100,000 a year in European Union agricultural subsidies.[348] Starting in 1993, Charles has paid tax voluntarily under the Memorandum of Understanding on Royal Taxation, updated 2013.[349] In December 2012, Her Majesty's Revenue and Customs were asked to investigate alleged tax avoidance by the Duchy of Cornwall.[350] The Duchy of Cornwall is named in the Paradise Papers, a set of confidential electronic documents relating to offshore investment that were leaked to the German newspaper Süddeutsche Zeitung. The papers show that the Duchy invested in a Bermuda-based carbon credits trading company run by one of Charles's Cambridge contemporaries. The investment was kept secret but there is no suggestion that Charles or the estate avoided UK tax.[351] Titles, styles, honours and arms Main article: List of titles and honours of Charles III See also: List of awards received by Charles III A logo with "CR III" and a crown (coloured) Royal cypher of Charles III, surmounted by the Tudor Crown[352] A logo with "CR III" and a crown Stylised version of the Scottish royal cypher of Charles III, surmounted by the Crown of Scotland[353] Titles and styles 1948 – 1952: His Royal Highness Prince Charles of Edinburgh[354] 1952 – 1958: His Royal Highness The Duke of Cornwall[fn 7] 26 July 1958 – 8 September 2022: His Royal Highness The Prince of Wales in Scotland: 6 February 1952 – 8 September 2022: His Royal Highness The Duke of Rothesay[fn 8] 8 September 2022 – present: His Majesty The King Between the death of his father Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh on 9 April 2021 and the death of his mother Elizabeth II, Charles also held the title of Duke of Edinburgh.[355] The title merged with the Crown upon his accession to the throne.[356] When conversing with the King, the correct etiquette is to address him initially as Your Majesty and thereafter as Sir.[357] Honours and military appointments Charles has held substantive ranks in the armed forces of a number of countries since he was commissioned as a flight lieutenant in the Royal Air Force in 1972. Charles's first honorary appointment in the armed forces was as Colonel-in-Chief of the Royal Regiment of Wales in 1969; since then, he has also been installed as Colonel-in-Chief, Colonel, Honorary Air Commodore, Air Commodore-in-Chief, Deputy Colonel-in-Chief, Royal Honorary Colonel, Royal Colonel, and Honorary Commodore of at least 32 military formations throughout the Commonwealth, including the Royal Gurkha Rifles, which is the only foreign regiment in the British army.[358] Since 2009, Charles holds the second-highest ranks in all three branches of the Canadian Forces and, on 16 June 2012, the Queen awarded him the highest honorary rank in all three branches of the British Armed Forces, "to acknowledge his support in her role as Commander-in-Chief", installing him as Admiral of the Fleet, Field Marshal and Marshal of the Royal Air Force.[359] Charles has been inducted into seven orders and received eight decorations from the Commonwealth realms, and has been the recipient of 20 different honours from foreign states, as well as nine honorary degrees from universities in the United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand. Arms Main article: Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom On his mother's death, Charles became king and therefore inherited the royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom and Canada. The design of King Charles III's royal cypher, featuring the Tudor crown rather than the St Edward's Crown, was announced on 27 September 2022. According to the College of Arms, the Tudor crown will now be used in representations of the Royal Arms and on uniforms and crown badges.[360] As Prince of Wales, Charles used the arms of the United Kingdom differenced with a white label, and an inescutcheon of the Principality of Wales surmounted by the heir-apparent's crown. Coat of arms of the Prince of Wales.svg Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom (Scotland).svg Coat of arms as Prince of Wales (1958–2022) Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom for use in Scotland Banners, flags, and standards As sovereign Royal Standard United Kingdom (outside Scotland) Scotland Main article: Royal Standard of the United Kingdom The Royal Standard is used to represent the King in the United Kingdom and overseas when he makes official visits. It is the royal arms in banner form undifferentiated, having been used by successive British monarchs since 1702. As Prince of Wales Banner of arms Royal Standard of the Prince of Wales Standard for Wales Standard for Scotland Banner of arms of the Duke of Cornwall Standard of the Prince of Wales for personal use in Canada The banners used by Charles whilst Prince of Wales varied depending upon location. His Personal Standard was the Royal Standard of the United Kingdom differenced as in his arms with a label of three points Argent, and the escutcheon of the arms of the Principality of Wales in the centre. It is used outside Wales, Scotland, Cornwall, and Canada, and throughout the entire United Kingdom when the prince is acting in an official capacity associated with the UK Armed Forces.[361] The personal flag for use in Wales was based upon the Royal Badge of Wales (the historic arms of the Kingdom of Gwynedd), which consist of four quadrants, the first and fourth with a red lion on a gold field, and the second and third with a gold lion on a red field. Superimposed is an escutcheon Vert bearing the single-arched coronet of the Prince of Wales.[361] In Scotland, the personal banner used since 1974 is based upon three ancient Scottish titles: Duke of Rothesay (heir apparent to the King of Scots), High Steward of Scotland and Lord of the Isles. The flag is divided into four quadrants like the arms of the Chief of Clan Stewart of Appin; the first and fourth quadrants comprise a gold field with a blue and silver checkered band in the centre; the second and third quadrants display a black galley on a silver field. The arms are differenced from those of Appin by the addition of an inescutcheon bearing the tressured lion rampant of Scotland; defaced by a plain label of three points Azure to indicate the heir apparent.[361] In Cornwall, the banner was the arms of the Duke of Cornwall: "Sable 15 bezants Or", that is, a black field bearing 15 gold coins.[361] In 2011, the Canadian Heraldic Authority introduced a personal heraldic banner for the Prince of Wales for use in Canada, consisting of the shield of the Arms of Canada defaced with both a blue roundel of the Prince of Wales's feathers surrounded by a wreath of gold maple leaves, and a white label of three points.[362] Issue Name Birth Marriage Children Date Spouse William, Prince of Wales 21 June 1982 (age 40) 29 April 2011 Catherine Middleton Prince George of Wales Princess Charlotte of Wales Prince Louis of Wales Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex 15 September 1984 (age 38) 19 May 2018 Meghan Markle Archie Mountbatten-Windsor Lilibet Mountbatten-Windsor Ancestry Ancestors of Charles III[363] See also Cultural depictions of Charles III List of current monarchs of sovereign states Notes As the reigning monarch, Charles does not usually use a family name, but when one is needed, it is Mountbatten-Windsor.[1] As monarch, Charles is the Supreme Governor of the Anglican Church of England. He is also a member of the Presbyterian Church of Scotland.[2] In addition to his active service listed here, Charles holds ranks and honorary appointments in the armed forces of Australia, Canada, New Zealand and Papua New Guinea as well as the United Kingdom. In addition to the United Kingdom, the King's fourteen other realms are: Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, The Bahamas, Belize, Canada, Grenada, Jamaica, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, the Solomon Islands, and Tuvalu. Prince Charles's godparents were: the King of the United Kingdom (his maternal grandfather); the King of Norway (his paternal cousin twice removed and maternal great-great-uncle by marriage, for whom Charles's great-great-uncle the Earl of Athlone stood proxy); Queen Mary (his maternal great-grandmother); Princess Margaret (his maternal aunt); Prince George of Greece and Denmark (his paternal great-uncle, for whom the Duke of Edinburgh stood proxy); the Dowager Marchioness of Milford Haven (his paternal great-grandmother); the Lady Brabourne (his cousin); and the Hon David Bowes-Lyon (his maternal great-uncle).[7] The Stuart kings Charles I, who was beheaded, and Charles II who was known for his promiscuous lifestyle. Charles Edward Stuart, once a Stuart pretender to the English and Scottish thrones, was called "Charles III" by his supporters.[161] As the eldest son of the new monarch, Charles automatically became Duke of Cornwall upon the death of King George VI, on 6 February 1952. He continued to hold the dukedom until his own accession to the throne, despite generally not using the title. As the eldest son of the new monarch, Charles automatically became Duke of Rothesay upon the death of King George VI, on 6 February 1952. References "The Royal Family name". Official website of the British monarchy. Archived from the original on 15 February 2009. Retrieved 3 February 2009. "King Charles vows to protect the security of the Church of Scotland" (Press release). The Church of Scotland. 10 September 2022. Retrieved 14 September 2022. "Profession reacts to Prince Charles' 10 design principles". architectsjournal.co.uk. 22 December 2014. Archived from the original on 3 December 2018. Retrieved 3 December 2018.; Forgey, Benjamin (22 February 1990). "Prince Charles, Architecture's Royal pain". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 29 April 2020. Retrieved 3 December 2018.; "How the Poundbury project became a model for innovation". Financial Times. 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"King Charles: New royal cypher revealed". BBC News. 26 September 2022. Retrieved 26 September 2022. "The London Gazette, Issue 38452, Page 5889". 9 November 1948. "HRH The Duke of Edinburgh". College of Arms. 9 April 2021. Archived from the original on 11 April 2021. Retrieved 7 May 2021.; "Prince Philip's Duke of Edinburgh title will pass to another royal when Charles is king". 9Honey. 12 April 2021. Archived from the original on 24 June 2021. Retrieved 20 June 2021. "Who is Duke of Edinburgh now?". National World. 12 September 2022. Greeting a member of The Royal Family, Royal Household, 15 January 2016, retrieved 18 April 2016 "The Prince of Wales visits the Royal Gurkha Rifles and Knole House". Prince of Wales. Archived from the original on 2 May 2014. Retrieved 1 May 2014. "The Queen Appoints the Prince of Wales to Honorary Five-Star rank". The Prince of Wales website. 16 June 2012. Archived from the original on 29 June 2012. Retrieved 27 June 2012.; "Prince Charles awarded highest rank in all three armed forces". The Daily Telegraph. 16 June 2012. Archived from the original on 16 June 2012. Retrieved 7 June 2012.; "No. 60350". The London Gazette. 7 December 2012. p. 23557. "Royal Cypher". College of Arms. Retrieved 28 September 2022. "Standards". Prince of Wales. Archived from the original on 7 June 2016. Retrieved 31 August 2016. "The Prince of Wales". Public Register of Arms, Flags and Badges. Office of the Governor General of Canada: Canadian Heraldic Authority. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 4 January 2016. Paget, Gerald (1977). The Lineage and Ancestry of H.R.H. Prince Charles, Prince of Wales (2 vols). Edinburgh: Charles Skilton. ISBN 978-0-284-40016-1. Sources Brandreth, Gyles (2007). Charles and Camilla: Portrait of a Love Affair. Random House. ISBN 978-0-09-949087-6. Dimbleby, Jonathan (1994). The Prince of Wales: A Biography. William Morrow and Company. ISBN 0-688-12996-X. Holden, Anthony (1979). Prince Charles. Atheneum. ISBN 978-0-593-02470-6. Junor, Penny (2005). The Firm: The Troubled Life of the House of Windsor. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-35274-5. OCLC 59360110. Lacey, Robert (2008). Monarch: The Life and Reign of Elizabeth II. Free Press. ISBN 978-1-4391-0839-0. Smith, Sally Bedell (2000). Diana in Search of Herself: Portrait of a Troubled Princess. Signet. ISBN 978-0-451-20108-9. Further reading Benson, Ross (1994). Charles: The Untold Story. St Martins Press. ISBN 978-0-312-10950-9. Bower, Tom (2018). The Rebel Prince, The Power, Passion and Defiance of Prince Charles. William Collins. ISBN 978-0-00-829173-0. Brown, Michèle (1980). Prince Charles. Crown. ISBN 978-0-517-54019-0. Campbell, J. (1981). Charles: Prince of Our Times. Smithmark. ISBN 978-0-7064-0968-0. Cathcart, Helen (1977). Prince Charles: The biography (illustrated ed.). Taplinger Pub. Co; Ltd. ISBN 978-0-8008-6555-9. Fisher, Graham; Fisher, Heather (1977). Charles: The Man and the Prince. Robert Hale. ISBN 978-0-7091-6095-3. Gilleo, Alma (1978). Prince Charles: Growing Up in Buckingham Palace. Childs World. ISBN 978-0-89565-029-0. Graham, Caroline (2005). Camilla and Charles: The Love Story. John Blake. ISBN 978-1-84454-195-9. Heald, Tim; Mohrs, Mayo (1979). The Man Who Will Be King H.R.H. (Prince of Wales Charles). New York: Arbor House. Hedley, Olwen (1969). Charles, 21st Prince of Wales. Pitkin Pictorials. ISBN 978-0-85372-027-0. Hodgson, Howard (2007). Charles: The Man Who Will Be King (illustrated ed.). John Blake Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84454-306-9. Holden, Anthony (1988). King Charles III: A Biography. Grove. ISBN 978-1-55584-309-0. Holden, Anthony (1998). Charles at Fifty. Random House. ISBN 978-0-375-50175-3. Holden, Anthony (1999). Charles: A Biography. Corgi Books. ISBN 978-0-552-99744-7. Jencks, Charles (1988). Prince, Architects & New Wave Monarchy. Rizzoli. ISBN 978-0-8478-1010-9. Jobson, Robert (2018). Charles at Seventy – Thoughts, Hopes & Dreams: Thoughts, Hopes and Dreams. John Blake. ISBN 978-1-78606-887-3. Junor, Penny (1998). Charles: Victim or Villain?. Harper Collins. ISBN 978-0-00-255900-3. Lane, Peter (1988). Prince Charles: a study in development. Robert Hale. ISBN 978-0-7090-3320-2. Liversidge, Douglas (1975). Prince Charles: monarch in the making. A. Barker. ISBN 978-0-213-16568-0. Martin, Christopher (1990). Prince Charles and the Architectural Debate (Architectural Design Profile). St Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-04048-2. Mayer, Catherine (2015). Born to Be King: Prince Charles on Planet Windsor. Henry Holt and Co. ISBN 978-1-62779-438-1. Mayer, Catherine (2015). Charles: The Heart of a King. Random House. ISBN 978-0-7535-5593-4. Nugent, Jean (1982). Prince Charles, England's Future King. Dillon. ISBN 978-0-87518-226-1. Regan, Simon (1977). Charles, the Clown Prince. Everest Books. ISBN 978-0-905018-50-8. Smith, Sally Bedell (2017). Prince Charles: The Passions and Paradoxes of an Improbable Life. Random House Trade Paperbacks. ISBN 978-0-8129-7980-0. Veon, Joan M. (1997). Prince Charles: The Sustainable Prince. Hearthstone. ISBN 978-1-57558-021-0. Wakeford, Geoffrey (1962). Charles, Prince of Wales. Associated Newspapers. External links The King at the Royal Family website The Duke of Cornwall at the Duchy of Cornwall website Charles III at IMDb Appearances on C-SPAN Charles III House of Windsor Cadet branch of the House of Oldenburg Born: 14 November 1948 Regnal titles Preceded by Elizabeth II King of the United Kingdom, Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, the Bahamas, Belize, Canada, Grenada, Jamaica, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Solomon Islands, Tuvalu 8 September 2022 – present Incumbent Heir apparent: The Prince of Wales Honorary titles Preceded by Elizabeth II Head of the Commonwealth 8 September 2022 – present Incumbent British royalty Vacant Title last held by Edward (VIII) Prince of Wales 26 July 1958 – 8 September 2022 Succeeded by The Prince William Duke of Cornwall Duke of Rothesay 6 February 1952 – 8 September 2022 Peerage of the United Kingdom Preceded by The Prince Philip Duke of Edinburgh 9 April 2021 – 8 September 2022 Merged with the Crown Academic offices Preceded by The Earl Mountbatten of Burma President of the United World Colleges 1978–1995 Succeeded by The Queen of Jordan Preceded by Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother President of the Royal College of Music 1993–present Incumbent Honorary titles Preceded by The Duke of Gloucester Great Master of the Order of the Bath 10 June 1974 – 8 September 2022 Vacant Order of precedence First Orders of precedence in the United Kingdom HM The King Succeeded by The Prince of Wales vte Charles III King of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms (2022–present) Realms Antigua and BarbudaAustraliaBahamasBelizeCanadaGrenadaJamaicaNew ZealandPapua New GuineaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSolomon IslandsTuvaluUnited Kingdom Titles and honours Head of the CommonwealthDefender of the FaithSupreme Governor of the Church of EnglandHead of the British Armed ForcesCommander-in-Chief of the Canadian Armed ForcesLord of MannDuke of NormandyKing's Official Birthday Family Diana, Princess of Wales (first wife)Queen Camilla (second wife)William, Prince of Wales (elder son)Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex (younger son)Elizabeth II (mother)Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh (father)Anne, Princess Royal (sister)Prince Andrew, Duke of York (brother)Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex and Forfar (brother)Mountbatten-Windsor (family) Life as Prince of Wales Investiture of the Prince of WalesFirst wedding guest listSecond weddingOverseas visits 2022 royal tour of Canada2022 State Opening of ParliamentBlack spider memosPrince of Wales v Associated Newspapers Ltd Accession and crtion Proclamation of Accessioncrtion Royal guestsParticipants in the processionMedalHonoursAward Reign HouseholdPrime ministersOperation Menai Bridge Charities and campaigns Mutton Renaissance CampaignThe Prince's Charities British Asian TrustBusiness in the CommunityChildren & the ArtsIn Kind Directiwill CampaignThe Prince's FoundationThe Prince's Foundation for Integrated HealthThe Prince's School of Traditional ArtsThe Prince of Wales's Charitable FundRoyal Drawing SchoolTurquoise Mountain FoundationYouth Business ScotlandThe Prince's May Day NetworkThe Prince's TrustSustainable Markets Initiative Great Reset Residences As King Buckingham Palace (official)Windsor Castle (official)Holyrood Palace (official, Scotland)Hillsborough Castle (official, Northern Ireland)Sandringham House (private)Balmoral Castle (private)Craigowan Lodge (private) As Prince of Wales Clarence House (official)Highgrove House (private)BirkhallLlwynywermod Awards given and created List of environmental/social interest awards receivedPrince of Wales's Intelligence Community AwardsPrince of Wales Prize for Municipal Heritage LeadershipThe Sun Military Awards Business ventures Duchy Home FarmDumfries HouseHighgrove House ShopsPoundburyWaitrose Duchy Organic Popular culture Documentaries Royal Family (1969)Charles: The Private Man, the Public Role (1994)Monarchy: The Royal Family at Work (2007)Elizabeth at 90: A Family Tribute (2016) Film and television Her Royal Highness..? (1981)Chorus Girls (1981)Charles & Diana: A Royal Love Story (1982)The Royal Romance of Charles and Diana (1982)Spitting Image (1984–1996, 2020–)Charles and Diana: Unhappily Ever After (1992)Willi und die Windzors (1996)Whatever Love Means (2005)The Queen (2006 film)The Queen (2009 TV serial)King Charles III (play, 2014; film, 2017)The Windsors (TV series, 2016–2020; play, 2021)The Crown (2019–)The Prince (2021) Publications Bibliography The Old Man of Lochnagar (1980)A Vision of Britain: A Personal View of Architecture (1989)Harmony: A New Way of Looking at Our World (2010) Miscellaneous Prince Charles IslandPrince Charles stream tree frog Links to related articles vte English, Scottish and British monarchs Monarchs of England until 1603 Monarchs of Scotland until 1603 Alfred the GreatEdward the ElderÆlfweardÆthelstanEdmund IEadredEadwigEdgar the PeacefulEdward the MartyrÆthelred the UnreadySweynEdmund IronsideCnutHarold IHarthacnutEdward the ConfessorHarold GodwinsonEdgar ÆthelingWilliam IWilliam IIHenry IStephenMatildaHenry IIHenry the Young KingRichard IJohnHenry IIIEdward IEdward IIEdward IIIRichard IIHenry IVHenry VHenry VIEdward IVEdward VRichard IIIHenry VIIHenry VIIIEdward VIJaneMary I and PhilipElizabeth I Kenneth I MacAlpinDonald IConstantine IÁedGiricEochaidDonald IIConstantine IIMalcolm IIndulfDubCuilénAmlaíbKenneth IIConstantine IIIKenneth IIIMalcolm IIDuncan IMacbethLulachMalcolm IIIDonald IIIDuncan IIEdgarAlexander IDavid IMalcolm IVWilliam IAlexander IIAlexander IIIMargaretJohnRobert IDavid IIEdward BalliolRobert IIRobert IIIJames IJames IIJames IIIJames IVJames VMary IJames VI Monarchs of England and Scotland after the Union of the Crowns from 1603 James I and VICharles ICharles IIJames II and VIIWilliam III and II and Mary IIAnne British monarchs after the Acts of Union 1707 AnneGeorge IGeorge IIGeorge IIIGeorge IVWilliam IVVictoriaEdward VIIGeorge VEdward VIIIGeorge VIElizabeth IICharles III Debatable or disputed rulers are in italics. vte Order of precedence in the United Kingdom (gentlemen) Shared (royal family) The KingThe Prince of Wales (in Scotland: the Duke of Rothesay)The Duke of Sussex (in Scotland: the Earl of Dumbarton)Prince George of WalesPrince Louis of WalesArchie Mountbatten-WindsorThe Duke of York (in Scotland: the Earl of Inverness)The Earl of Wessex (in Scotland: the Earl of Forfar)Viscount SevernPeter PhillipsThe Duke of GloucesterThe Duke of KentThe Earl of SnowdonPrince Michael of Kent England and Wales Justin Welby, Archbishop of CanterburyBrandon Lewis, Lord ChancellorStephen Cottrell, Archbishop of YorkSir Lindsay Hoyle, Speaker of the House of CommonsThe Lord McFall of Alcluith, Lord SpeakerThe Lord Reed of Allermuir, President of the Supreme Court of the United KingdomThe Lord Burnett of Maldon, Lord Chief Justice of England and WalesThe Lord True, Lord Privy SealAmbassadors and High CommissionersThe Baron Carrington, Lord Great ChamberlainThe Duke of Norfolk, Earl MarshalThe Earl of Dalhousie, Lord StewardThe Lord Parker of Minsmere, Lord ChamberlainThe Lord de Mauley, Master of the Horse Scotland Lord LieutenantsSheriffs PrincipalBrandon Lewis, Lord High ChancellorIain Greenshields, Moderator of the General AssemblyAlister Jack, Secretary of State for ScotlandThe Earl of Erroll, Lord High Constable of ScotlandThe Duke of Argyll, Master of the Household in Scotland Northern Ireland Lords Lieutenant of counties and citiesHigh sheriffs of countiesJohn McDowell, Archbishop of Armagh (Church of Ireland)Eamon Martin, Archbishop of Armagh (Roman Catholic)Dermot Farrell, Archbishop of Dublin (Roman Catholic)Michael Jackson, Archbishop of Dublin (Church of Ireland)Charles McMullen, Moderator of the Presbyterian ChurchLord Mayor of Belfast and Mayors of boroughs in Northern IrelandBrandon Lewis, Lord High ChancellorSir Lindsay Hoyle, Commons SpeakerThe Lord McFall of Alcluith, Lord SpeakerThe Baron Carrington, Lord Great ChamberlainThe Duke of Norfolk, Earl MarshalThe Earl of Dalhousie, Lord StewardThe Lord Parker of Minsmere, Lord ChamberlainThe Lord de Mauley, Master of the Horse not including short-term appointments, visiting dignitaries and most peers vte British princes The generations indicate descent from George I, who formalised the use of the titles prince and princess for members of the British royal family. 1st generation King George II 2nd generation Frederick, Prince of WalesPrince George WilliamPrince William, Duke of Cumberland 3rd generation King George IIIPrince Edward, Duke of York and AlbanyPrince William Henry, Duke of Gloucester and EdinburghPrince Henry, Duke of Cumberland and StrathearnPrince Frederick 4th generation King George IVPrince Frederick, Duke of York and AlbanyKing William IVPrince Edward, Duke of Kent and StrathearnKing Ernest Augustus of HanoverPrince Augustus Frederick, Duke of SussexPrince Adolphus, Duke of CambridgePrince OctaviusPrince AlfredPrince William Frederick, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh 5th generation Prince Albert1King George V of HanoverPrince George, Duke of Cambridge 6th generation King Edward VIIPrince Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and GothaPrince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and StrathearnPrince Leopold, Duke of AlbanyPrince Ernest Augustus 7th generation Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence and AvondaleKing George VPrince Alexander John of WalesAlfred, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and GothaPrince Arthur of ConnaughtPrince Charles Edward, Duke of Albany and of Saxe-Coburg and GothaPrince George William of HanoverPrince Christian of HanoverPrince Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick 8th generation King Edward VIIIKing George VIPrince Henry, Duke of GloucesterPrince George, Duke of KentPrince JohnAlastair, 2nd Duke of Connaught and StrathearnJohann Leopold, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and GothaPrince Hubertus of Saxe-Coburg and GothaPrince Ernest Augustus of HanoverPrince George William of Hanover 9th generation Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh2Prince William of GloucesterPrince Richard, Duke of GloucesterPrince Edward, Duke of KentPrince Michael of Kent 10th generation King Charles IIIPrince Andrew, Duke of YorkPrince Edward, Earl of Wessex and Forfar 11th generation William, Prince of WalesPrince Harry, Duke of SussexJames Mountbatten-Windsor, Viscount Severn3 12th generation Prince George of WalesPrince Louis of WalesArchie Mountbatten-Windsor3 1 Not a British prince by birth, but created Prince Consort. 2 Not a British prince by birth, but created a Prince of the United Kingdom. 3 Status debatable; see James, Viscount Severn#Titles and styles and Archie Mountbatten-Windsor#Title, styles and succession for details. Princes that lost their title and status or did not use the title are shown in italics. vte Princes of Wales Edward (1301–1307)Edward (1343–1376)Richard (1376–1377)Henry (1399–1413)Edward (1454–1471)Richard (1460; disputed)Edward (1471–1483)Edward (1483–1484)Arthur (1489–1502)Henry (1504–1509)Edward (1537–1547)Henry (1610–1612)Charles (1616–1625)Charles (1641–1649)James (1688)George (1714–1727)Frederick (1729–1751)George (1751–1760)George (1762–1820)Albert Edward (1841–1901)George (1901–1910)Edward (1910–1936)Charles (1958–2022)William (2022–present) See also: Principality of Wales vte Dukes of Cornwall Edward (1337–1376)Richard (1376–1377)Henry (1399–1413)Henry (1421–1422)Edward (1453–1471)Richard (1460; disputed)Edward (1470–1483)Edward (1483–1484)Arthur (1486–1502)Henry (1502–1509)Henry (1511)Edward (1537–1547)Henry Frederick (1603–1612)Charles (1612–1625)Charles (1630–1649)James (1688–1701/2)George (1714–1727)Frederick (1727–1751)George (1762–1820)Albert Edward (1841–1901)George (1901–1910)Edward (1910–1936)Charles (1952–2022)William (2022–present) Cornwall Portal vte Dukes of Rothesay David (1398–1402)James (1402–1406)Alexander (1430)James (1430–1437)James (1452–1460)James (1473–1488)James (1507–1508)Arthur (1509–1510)James (1512–1513)James (1540–1541)James (1566–1567)Henry Frederick (1594–1612)Charles (1612–1625)Charles James (1629)Charles (1630–1649)James (1688–1689)George (1714–1727)Frederick (1727–1751)George (1762–1820)Albert Edward (1841–1901)George (1901–1910)Edward (1910–1936)Charles (1952–2022)William (2022–present) vte Dukes of Edinburgh Frederick (1726–1751)George (1751–1760)Dukes of Gloucester and Edinburgh (1764–1834)Alfred (1866–1900)Philip (1947–2021)Charles (2021–2022) vte Monarchs of Canada House of Hanover (1867–1901) Victoria House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (1901–1917) Edward VIIGeorge V House of Windsor (1917–present) George VEdward VIIIGeorge VIElizabeth IICharles III vte Heads of state of Jamaica Monarch (from 1962) Elizabeth IICharles III flag Jamaica portal Governor-General (from 1962) BlackburneCampbellGlasspoleCookeHallAllen vte Current monarchs of sovereign states Africa Eswatini Mswati IIILesotho Letsie IIIMorocco Mohammed VI Americas Antigua and Barbuda The Bahamas Belize Canada Grenada Jamaica Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Charles III Asia Bahrain Hamad bin Isa Al KhalifaBhutan Jigme Khesar Namgyel WangchuckBrunei Hassanal BolkiahCambodia Norodom SihamoniJapan NaruhitoJordan Abdullah IIKuwait Nawaf Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-SabahMalaysia Abdullah of PahangOman Haitham bin TariqQatar Tamim bin Hamad Al ThaniSaudi Arabia SalmanThailand Vajiralongkorn Europe Andorra Joan Enric Vives i Sicília and Emmanuel MacronBelgium PhilippeDenmark Margrethe IILiechtenstein Hans-Adam IILuxembourg HenriMonaco Albert IIKingdom of the Netherlands Willem-AlexanderNorway Harald VSpain Felipe VISweden Carl XVI GustafUnited Kingdom Charles IIIVatican City Francis Oceania Australia Cook Islands New Zealand Niue Papua New Guinea Solomon Islands Tuvalu Charles IIITonga Tupou VI See also: Current heirs of sovereign monarchies vte Heads of state of the G20 Argentina FernándezAustralia Charles IIIBrazil BolsonaroCanada Charles IIIChina XiEuropean Union MichelFrance MacronGermany SteinmeierIndia MurmuIndonesia JokowiItaly MattarellaJapan NaruhitoMexico López ObradorRussia PutinSaudi Arabia SalmanSouth Africa RamaphosaSouth Korea YoonTurkey ErdoğanUnited Kingdom Charles IIIUnited States Biden vte Great Masters of the Order of the Bath John Montagu, 2nd Duke of MontaguPrince Frederick, Duke of York and AlbanyPrince William, Duke of Clarence and St AndrewsPrince Augustus Frederick, Duke of SussexAlbert, Prince ConsortAlbert Edward, Prince of WalesPrince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and StrathearnPrince Henry, Duke of GloucesterCharles, Prince of Wales CivilKnightsGrandCrossoftheBath.JPG vte Monarchies MonarchImperial, royal and noble ranksList of current sovereign monarchsList of current constituent monarchsList of monarchy referendums Type AbsoluteConstitutionalDiarchyElectiveFederalHereditaryNon-sovereignPersonal unionRegency Topics AbdicationAbolition of monarchyAristocracyCriticism of monarchyDemocratizationDecolonizationDynastyGovernmentHead of stateLegitimacy (political)OligarchyOrder of successionRepublicanismSelf-proclaimed monarchySovereignty Titles ChhatrapatiEmperorKing Queen regnantPrince regnantRajakhanTsarSultanShahPharaoh Current Africa EswatiniLesothoMoroccolist Asia BahrainBhutanBruneiCambodiaJapanJordanKuwaitMalaysiaOmanQatarSaudi ArabiaThailandUnited Arab Emirateslist Europe AndorraBelgiumDenmarkLiechtensteinLuxembourgMonacoNetherlandsNorwaySpainSwedenVatican City Oceania Tonga Commonwealth realms (Charles III) Antigua and BarbudaAustraliaBahamasBelizeCanadaGrenadaJamaicaNew Zealand Cook IslandsNiuePapua New Guinea Saint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSolomon IslandsTuvaluUnited Kingdom Former Africa AdamawaAnkoleAussaBarotselandBagirmiBornuBurundiCentral AfricaDahomeyEgyptEthiopiaGhanaGommaGummaKaffaKongoLibyaLubaMadagascarMaliMaoreMaraviMwaliNdzuwaniNgazidjaRwandaShillukIslands of RefreshmentTunisiaWitulandWassoulouYekeZanzibarZimbabweand other Americas AraucaníaAztecBrazilHaitiIncaMexicoMiskitoSurinameTalamancaTrinidadThirteen Colonies Asia AfghanistanAsirBangladeshBukharaBurmaCebuChehabChinaDapitanHejazIndonesiaIran (Qajar)IraqJabal ShammarKandy (Sri Lanka)KathiriKhivaKoreaKumulKurdistanLaosMaguindanaoMahraMaldivesManchukuoMongoliaNajranNepalQu'aitiRyukyuSarawakShanSikkimSip Song Chau TaiSuluSyriaTibetTungningUpper AsirUpper YafaVietnamYemen (South Yemen) Europe AlbaniaAragonAsturiasAustriaAustria-HungaryBavariaBosniaBrittanyBulgariaCrimeaCiliciaCorsicaCyprusFinlandFranceGaliciaGeorgiaGermanyGreeceGranadaHanoverHungaryIcelandImeretiIrelandItalyKartli-KakhetiLithuaniaMajorcaManMoldaviaMontenegroNavarreNeuchâtelOttoman EmpirePapal StatesPiedmont-SardiniaPoland–LithuaniaPortugalPrussiaRomaniaRussiaSamosSaxonySavoyScotlandSerbiaTavolaraTwo SiciliesTuscanyUkraineUnited Baltic DuchyYugoslaviaValenciaWürttemberg Oceania AbemamaBora BoraEaster IslandKingdom of FijiHawaiiHuahineMangarevaNiuē-FekaiNuku HivaRaiateaRapa ItiRarotongaRimataraRurutuTahuataTahiti Commonwealth realms BarbadosCeylon (Sri Lanka)FijiThe GambiaGhanaGuyanaIndia (British Raj, princely states)Irish Free State / IrelandKenyaMalawiMaltaMauritiusNigeriaPakistanRhodesiaSierra LeoneSouth AfricaTanganyikaTrinidad and TobagoUganda Charles III at Wikipedia's sister projects: Media from Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Portals: icon Monarchy flag United Kingdom flag England flag Cornwall icon London flag Scotland flag Wales icon Northern Ireland flag Australia flag Belize flag Canada flag Jamaica flag New Zealand flag Tuvalu Authority control Edit this at Wikidata General ISNI 12VIAF 1WorldCat National libraries 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descentEnglish people of Greek descentEnglish people of Russian descentEnglish people of Scottish descentGraduates of the Royal Air Force College CranwellHeads of the CommonwealthHeads of state of AustraliaHeads of state of Antigua and BarbudaHeads of state of the BahamasHeads of state of BelizeHeads of state of CanadaHeads of state of GrenadaHeads of state of JamaicaHeads of state of New ZealandHeads of state of Papua New GuineaHeads of state of Saint Kitts and NevisHeads of state of Saint LuciaHeads of state of Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesHeads of state of the Solomon IslandsHeads of state of TuvaluHeirs to the British throneHonorary air commodoresHouse of WindsorMarshals of the Royal Air ForceMonarchs of the Isle of ManMonarchs of the United KingdomMountbatten-Windsor familyPeople educated at Cheam SchoolPeople educated at Geelong Grammar SchoolPeople educated at GordonstounPeople educated at Hill House SchoolPeople from WestminsterPeople named in the Paradise PapersPhilanthropists from LondonPrinces of the United KingdomPrinces of WalesRoyal Australian Air Force air marshalsRoyal Navy admirals of the fleetSustainability advocatesWriters from LondonSons of monarchsPeople of the National Rifle Association Special Moments From The Queen's Funeral, Including Kate Middleton Comforting Charlotte Today the nation marks the state funeral of Her Majesty, the Queen, who is later being laid to rest with her husband Prince Philip. Here, we explore some of the most touching moments you might have missed during the day's proceedings Queen Elizabeth II's funeral took place today at Westminster Abbey, bringing together all of the royal family. Those invited to the State Funeral arrived at Westminster Abbey on Monday, September 19, before the service's commencement at 11am. The order of service contained elements that paid tribute to Queen Elizabeth II's 'extraordinary reign and Her Majesty’s remarkable life of service as Head of State, Nation and Commonwealth,' as per the Royal Family's official website. The occasion brought with it so many special moments, some of which you might have missed during the overwhelming series of events. Two of the Prince and Princess of Wales' children, Prince George, nine, and Princess Charlotte, seven, arrived for the funeral, accompanied by the princess and Camilla, Queen Consort. queen funeral ANTHONY DEVLINGETTY IMAGES Prince Edward and Sophie, the Countess of Wessex, who sat up at the front of the service, were feeling moved early on in the ceremony. The Prince was seen wiping away his tears with a handkerchief. britains prince edward, earl of wessex and britains sophie, countess of wessex attend with britains prince william, prince of wales and britains catherine, princess of wales, the state funeral service for britains queen elizabeth ii, at westminster abbey in london on september 19, 2022 leaders from around the world will attend the state funeral of queen elizabeth ii the countrys longest serving monarch, who died aged 96 after 70 years on the throne, will be honoured with a state funeral on monday morning at westminster abbey photo by ben stansall pool afp photo by ben stansallpoolafp via getty images BEN STANSALLGETTY IMAGES ADVERTISEMENT - CONTINUE READING BELOW This content is imported from Twitter. You may be able to find the same content in another format, or you may be able to find more information, at their web site. Prince George was seen seemingly wiping away a tear as well, as the choir sang. This came after he and his sister Prince Charlotte joined their parents to walk behind the Queen’s coffin ahead of Her Majesty’s funeral ceremony. queen funeral special moments CHRIS JACKSONGETTY IMAGES Prior to the service, the Princess of Wales was also seen holding Princess Charlotte’s hand, and giving her a reassuring touch on the shoulder. Meghan Markle was later seen very emotional and crying outside of Westminster Abbey following the funeral ceremony. queen funeral special moments SAMIR HUSSEINGETTY IMAGES ADVERTISEMENT - CONTINUE READING BELOW The Duchess of Sussex was pictured wiping away her tears. The Archbishop of Canterbury gave the Sermon at the funeral, at which point he said of the Queen's dedication to serving the nation: 'Rarely has such a promise been so well kept.' This content is imported from Twitter. You may be able to find the same content in another format, or you may be able to find more information, at their web site. The two-minute silence at the state funeral was a poignant moment in itself, and set the tone for the end of the service at around noon. The wreath, placed atop the Queen's coffin, bore an extremely special message from King Charles III, the Queen's son and heir: 'In loving and devoted memory, Charles R,' - with the 'R' standing for 'Rex' now that Charles is King. flowers are seen on the coffin of britains queen elizabeth on the day of her state funeral and burial, in london, britain, september 19, 2022 photo by hannah mckay pool afp photo by hannah mckaypoolafp via getty images HANNAH MCKAY This content is imported from Twitter. You may be able to find the same content in another format, or you may be able to find more information, at their web site. queen funeral special moments HANNAH MCKAYGETTY IMAGES ADVERTISEMENT - CONTINUE READING BELOW This content is imported from Twitter. You may be able to find the same content in another format, or you may be able to find more information, at their web site. Buckingham Palace household staff were also seen lining up to pay their respects to the Queen. queen funeral special moments CARL COURT Following the funeral, video footage taken at Wellington Arch seemingly showed Princess Charlotte telling her brother Prince George to bow as their great-grandmother's coffin passed them. They were seen having a conversation while waiting for Her Majesty's coffin to be placed onto the royal hearse, and Princess Charlotte can be seen saying: 'You need to bow,' to Prince George. He appeared to be listening to his sister earnestly. Prince William and Prince Harry walked together in the procession of the Queen's funeral, while the three eldest grandchildren of the Queen - Princess Anne, Prince Andrew and Prince Edward - walked behind King Charles. In a special vigil on Saturday night, Prince William and Prince Harry stood at the head and foot of the Queen's coffin with all eight of the monarch's grandchildren. The brothers, who were without their spouses, stood in quiet reflection around their grandmother for a quarter of an hour to pay their respects. Prince William was beside Zara Tindall and Peter Phillips, and Prince Harry stood next to Princesses Beatrice, Princess Eugenie, Lady Louise, and James, Viscount Severn. Prior to this, the pair walked together during Wednesday's procession of the Queen's coffin from Buckingham Palace to Westminster Hall, where she lay in state in advance of the funeral. queen funeral special moments SAMIR HUSSEINGETTY IMAGES ADVERTISEMENT - CONTINUE READING BELOW royal family plans following queen funeral PHIL NOBLEGETTY IMAGES During a brief service honouring the late Queen Elizabeth II at Westminster Hall, Meghan Markle was seen paying her respects by doing a traditional curtsy - a moment shared by many of her well wishers via social media. She and Prince Harry were later seen heartwarmingly holding hands as they departed the service. queen funeral special moments MARCO BERTORELLOGETTY IMAGES During a trip to Norfolk, the Prince and Princess of Wales viewed floral tributes left outside Sandringham House, the country home owned by King Charles, at which point the prince opened up about finding Wednesday's procession walk 'challenging'. This was due to it reminding him of Princess Diana's funeral. queen funeral special moments GETTY IMAGES ADVERTISEMENT - CONTINUE READING BELOW In the same way that he and his younger brother Prince Harry walked behind the gun carriage in Wednesday's procession, they did so 25 years ago during the funeral of their late mother. As per the BBC, the prince told one woman in the crowd at Sandringham: 'I mean the walk yesterday was challenging, it brought back a few memories...' Receptionist Jane Wells from Long Sutton in Lincolnshire said she told Prince William how proud his mother would have been of him. queen funeral special moments GETTY IMAGES She recalled: 'He said how hard it was yesterday because it brought back memories of his mother's funeral.' Caroline Barwick-Walters of Neath in Wales recalled telling Prince William: 'Thank you for sharing your grief with the nation', and that he replied: 'She was everybody's grandmother.' At the time, he and Middleton had both been speaking to those who gathered outside Sandringham House to honour the Queen. During King Charles' first televised address to the nation as the new monarch, which saw him refer to the 'deep sense of gratitude' he had for his mother, he also spoke fondly of his royal family members. ADVERTISEMENT - CONTINUE READING BELOW 'This is also a time of change for my family,' he began. queen funeral special moments WPA POOLGETTY IMAGES Speaking of his wife, Camilla, Queen Consort, first, he said: 'I count on the loving help of my darling wife Camilla in recognition of her own loyal public service since our marriage 17 years ago. 'She becomes my Queen Consort. I know she will bring to the demands of her new role, the steadfast devotion to duty on which I have come to rely so much.' He later addressed Prince William and Middleton, saying: 'As my heir, William assumes the Scottish titles which have meant so much to me, he succeeds me as Duke of Cornwall and takes on the responsibilities for the Duchy of Cornwall which I have undertaken for more than five decades. ' queen funeral special moments BETTMANNGETTY IMAGES The King added: 'With Catherine beside him, our new Prince and Princess of Wales I know will continue to inspire and lead our national conversations, helping to bring the marshal to the centre ground where vital help can be given.' King Charles also said of Prince Harry and Meghan Markle: 'I want also to express my love for Harry and Meghan as they continue to build their lives overseas.' He concluded with a final tribute to his late mother, which included a final line from Shakespeare's Hamlet: 'And to my darling mama as you begin your last great journey to join my dear late papa, I want simply to say this: thank you. Thank you for your love and devotion to our family and to the family of nations you have served so diligently all these years. May flights of angels sing thee to to thy rest.' The Queen died peacefully at Balmoral Castle on Thursday, September 8, surrounded by her family. List of the guests who attended the Queen's funeral Heads of state, former prime ministers and members of foreign royal families were among those attending the funeral men Bookmark Enter your postcode for local news and info Enter your postcode Prince Edward wipes away tears at the funeral for The Queen Prince Edward wipes away tears at the funeral for The Queen (Image: ITV) Queen Elizabeth II's life was commemorated during a state funeral at Westminster Abbey on Monday (September 19). Some 2,000 people attended the ceremony, which brings a national 10-day mourning period to a close. Guests at the Queen’s state funeral included heads of state, former prime ministers and members of foreign royal families. Almost 200 people who were recognised in the Queen’s Birthday Honours earlier this year also attended, including those who made extraordinary contributions to the response to the cvd-19 pandemic and those who have volunteered in their local communities. Read more:Pictures show Greater Manchester quiet and empty amid Queen's funeral Other guests included representatives from both Houses of Parliament, the devolved administrations, the armed forces, the police service and the civil service. 138259102799 SIMILAR ARTICLES TO THIS partner logo POWERED BY 138405386249 138398850746 138329481766 138329481766 Here is a look at some of the names who attended the funeral: Royal family The King and the Queen Consort The Princess Royal and Vice Admiral Sir Tim Laurence The Duke of York The Earl and Countess of Wessex The Prince and Princess of Wales Prince George Princess Charlotte The Duke and Duchess of Sussex Mr Peter Phillips The Duke of Gloucester The Earl of Snowdon The Duke of Kent Prince Michael of Kent Princess Beatrice, Mrs Edoardo Mapelli Mozzi Princess Eugenie, Mrs Jack Brooksbank Mr Edoardo Mapelli Mozzi Mr Jack Brooksbank Sarah, Duchess of York The Lady Louise Mountbatten-Windsor Viscount Severn Mr and Mrs Michael Tindall Viscount Linley The Lady Margarita Armstrong-Jones Mr Daniel and the Lady Sarah Chatto Mr Samuel Chatto 2nd Lieutenant Arthur Chatto RM The Duchess of Gloucester Earl and Countess of Ulster Lord Culloden The Lady Cosima Windsor The Lady Davina Lewis Miss Senna Lewis Mr George and The Lady Rose Gilman Miss Lyla Gilman Earl and Countess of St Andrews Lord Downpatrick The Lady Marina-Charlotte Windsor The Lady Amelia Windsor Mr Timothy and the Lady Helen Taylor Mr Columbus Taylor Mr Cassius Taylor Miss Estella Taylor Miss Eloise Taylor The Lord Nicholas Windsor Master Albert Windsor Master Leopold Windsor Princess Michael of Kent The Lord and Lady Frederick Windsor Mr Thomas and the Lady Gabriella Kingston Princess Alexandra, the Honourable Lady Ogilvy Mr and Mrs James Ogilvy Mr Alexander Ogilvy Mr and Mrs Timothy Vesterberg Miss Marina Ogilvy Mr Christian Mowatt Miss Zenouska Mowatt Catherine, Princess of Wales, Princess Charlotte of Wales and Prince George of Wales arrive at Westminster Abbey Catherine, Princess of Wales, Princess Charlotte of Wales and Prince George of Wales arrive at Westminster Abbey Holders of the Victoria Cross, the George Cross and the Orders of Chivalry Order of St John: Miss Nakkita Charag, Dr Ahmad Ma’ali, Professor Mark Compton Order of Australia: Professor Barbara Bain, Dr Lissant Mary Bolton, Professor Mark Dodgson Order of Canada: Ms Sandra Oh, Mr Mark Tewksbury, Mr Gregory Charles Order of New Zealand: The Hon Dame Silvia Cartwright, the Rt Hon Sir Donald McKinnon, Dame Kiri Te Kanawa The Order of Companions of Honour: Dame Marina Warner, Sir Paul Nurse, Sir Richard Eyre Knights Bachelor: The Lord Lingfield, Professor Sir Colin Berry, The Rt Hon Sir Gary Hickinbottom The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire: Mr Arun Kumar Batra, Dame Amelia Fawcett, Sir Christopher Greenwood The Royal Victorian Order: Mr Raymond Wheaton, Miss Shutica Patel, The Lord Sterling of Plaistow The Most Distinguished Order of St Michael and St George: Sir David Manning, Ms Andrea Rose, The Rt Hon the Baroness Ashton of Upholland The Order of Merit: Professor the Lord Darzi of Denham, Dame Ann Dowling, Mr Neil MacGregor The Most Honourable Order of the Bath: Major General Susan Ridge, Sir Patrick Vallance, Air Chief Marshal Sir Stephen Dalton The Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle: The Rt Hon Dame Elish Angiolini, The Rt Hon the Lord Patel, The Lord Wilson of Tillyorn The Most Noble Order of the Garter: The Rt Hon the Baroness Amos, The Most Hon the Marquess of Salisbury, The Rt Hon Baroness Manningham-Buller Cross of Valour (Australia): Mr Allan Sparkes Cross of Valour (Canada): First Officer Leslie Palmer New Zealand Cross: Ms Jacinda Amey Holders of The George Cross: Major (Ret’d) Peter Norton, Mr James Beaton, Mr Anthony Gledhill Victoria Cross (New Zealand): Mr Willie Apiata Victoria Cross (Australia): Cpl Mark Donaldson Holders of The Victoria Cross: CSgt Johnson Beharry, Mr Keith Payne Representatives of faith communities Mrs Marie van der Zyl, President, Board of Deputies of British Jews Dr Shirin Fozdar-Faroudi, Representative of the Bahaʼi Community Mr Nemu Chandaria, Representative of the Jain Community Mr Malcom Deboo, President of the Zoroastrian Community The Venerable Bogoda Seelawimala, Representative of the Buddhist Community The Lord Singh of Wimbledon, Representative of the Sikh Community Mr Rajnish Kashyap, General Secretary, Hindu Council UK Mrs Aliya Azam, Interfaith Co-ordinator, Al-Khoei Foundation Shaykh Dr Asim Yusuf, Muslim Scholar Chief Rabbi Ephraim Mirvis, Chief Rabbi of Great Britain and the United Hebrew Congregations of the Commonwealth Verger Representing the Churches of Wales: The Reverend Simon Walking, President, Free Church Council of Wales; The Most Reverend Andrew John, Archbishop of Wales; The Most Reverend Mark O’Toole, Archbishop of Cardiff Representing the Churches of Scotland: The Right Reverend Dr Iain Greenshields, Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland; The Most Reverend Leo Cushley, Archbishop of St Andrews and Edinburgh; The Most Reverend Mark Strange, Primus, Scottish Episcopal Church Representing the Churches of Northern Ireland: The Reverend David Nixon, President, Methodist Church in Ireland; The Reverend Ian Brown, Lead Minister, Martyrs Memorial Free Presbyterian Church; The Right Reverend Dr John Kirkpatrick, Moderator, The Presbyterian Church in Ireland; The Most Reverend Dr Eamon Martin, Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of All Ireland; The Most Reverend John McDowell, Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of All Ireland and Metropolitan Representing the Churches in England: Pastor Agu Irukwu, Senior Pastor, Jesus House UK; Pastor Glyn Barrett, National Leader, Assemblies of God; The Reverend Canon Helen Cameron, Moderator, Free Churches Group; Ms Shermara Fletcher, Principal Officer for Pentecostal and Charismatic Relations, Churches Together in England; The Reverend Graham Thompson, President, Methodist Conference; His Eminence Archbishop Angaelos, The Coptic Church in Great Britain; His Eminence Cardinal Vincent Nichols, Archbishop of Westminster; His Eminence Archbishop Nikitas, Archbishop of Thyateira and Great Britain Serjeant of the Vestry, The Very Reverend Professor David Fergusson, Dean of the Thistle and of the Chapel Royal in Scotland The Reverend Canon Paul Wright, Sub-Dean of His Majesty’s Chapels Royal The Right Reverend and Right Honourable Dame Sarah Mullally, Bishop of London and Dean of His Majesty’s Chapels Royal The Right Reverend David Conner, Dean of Windsor The Right Reverend James Newcome, Clerk of the Closet The Right Reverend Dr John Inge, Lord High Almoner Condition: In Excellent Condition, Features: Commemorative, Year of Issue: 2022, Modified Item: Yes, Country/Region of Manufacture: United States, Material: Unknown, Variety: Olympic, Colour: Gold Silver, Modification Description: King Charles III, Currency: Commerative, Fineness: Unknown, Options: Commemorative, Collections/ Bulk Lots: Queen Elizabeth II, Country of Origin: United States

PicClick Insights - Queen Elizabeth II. Gold Silbermünze signiert Beerdigung tot 1926 2022 König Karl 3 PicClick Exclusive

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