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Seller: checkoutmyunqiuefunitems ✉️ (2.776) 99.9%, Location: Manchester, Take a look at my other items, GB, Ships to: WORLDWIDE, Item: 276050340222 Antiker Adler massives Messing alter Goldkronleuchter Vintage viktorianischer Baum Vogel Retro. Fictional angelsFictional demonsFictional deities. Categories: Fictional birdsLists of fictional birdsLists of birds. Genus Haliaeetus. Lizards and snakes. Genera: Haliaeetus, Ichthyophaga. Sea eagles or fish eagles take fish as a large part of their diets, either fresh or as carrion. Eagle Brass Ornament This is a small brass Eagle on a Tree Statue The dimensions of the Miniature Statuette Figurine are 65 mm x 35 mm x 30 mm It Weighs just over 65 grams A wonderful collectable piece for any eagle lover It would be a super addition to any collection, excellent display, practical piece or authentic period prop. It is in Very Good Condition considering its age Comes from a pet and smoke free home Sorry about the poor quality photos. They don't do the piece justice which looks a lot better in real life Would make an Excellent Present or Collectable Keepsake souvenir Click Here to Check out my other Antique Items Buy with Confidence please read my feedback from over 1100 satisfied customer Read how quickly they receive their items - I post all my items within 24 hours of receiving payment International customers are welcome. I have shipped items to over 120 countries International orders may require longer handling time if held up at customs If there is a problem I always give a full refund Returns are accepted If your unhappy with your item please return it for a full refund I am a UK Seller with 10 Years of eBay Selling Experience Why not treat yourself? I always combine multiple items and send an invoice with discounted postage I leave instant feedback upon receiving yours All payment methods accepted from all countries in all currencies Are you looking for a Interesting conversation piece? A birthday present for the person who has everything? A comical gift to cheer someone up? or a special unique gift just to say thank you? You now know where to look for a bargain! I have sold items to coutries such as Afghanistan * Albania * Algeria * American Samoa (US) * Andorra * Angola * Anguilla (GB) * Antigua and Barbuda * Argentina * Armenia * Aruba (NL) * Australia * Austria * Azerbaijan * Bahamas * Bahrain * Bangladesh * Barbados * Belarus * Belgium * Belize * Benin * Bermuda (GB) * Bhutan * Bolivia * Bonaire (NL) * Bosnia and Herzegovina * Botswana * Bouvet Island (NO) * Brazil * British Indian Ocean Territory (GB) * British Virgin Islands (GB) * Brunei * Bulgaria * Burkina Faso * Burundi * Cambodia * Cameroon * Canada * Cape Verde * Cayman Islands (GB) * Central African Republic * Chad * Chile * China * Christmas Island (AU) * Cocos Islands (AU) * Colombia * Comoros * Congo * Democratic Republic of the Congo * Cook Islands (NZ) * Coral Sea Islands Territory (AU) * Costa Rica * Croatia * Cuba * Curaçao (NL) * Cyprus * Czech Republic * Denmark * Djibouti * Dominica * Dominican Republic * East Timor * Ecuador * Egypt * El Salvador * Equatorial Guinea * Eritrea * Estonia * Ethiopia * Falkland Islands (GB) * Faroe Islands (DK) * Fiji Islands * Finland * France * French Guiana (FR) * French Polynesia (FR) * French Southern Lands (FR) * Gabon * Gambia * Georgia * Germany * Ghana * Gibraltar (GB) * Greece * Greenland (DK) * Grenada * Guadeloupe (FR) * Guam (US) * Guatemala * Guernsey (GB) * Guinea * Guinea-Bissau * Guyana * Haiti * Heard and McDonald Islands (AU) * Honduras * Hong Kong (CN) * Hungary * Iceland * India * Indonesia * Iran * Iraq * Ireland * Isle of Man (GB) * Israel * Italy * Ivory Coast * Jamaica * Jan Mayen (NO) * Japan * Jersey (GB) * Jordan * Kazakhstan * Kenya * Kiribati * Kosovo * Kuwait * Kyrgyzstan * Laos * Latvia * Lebanon * Lesotho * Liberia * Libya * Liechtenstein * Lithuania * Luxembourg * Macau (CN) * Macedonia * Madagascar * Malawi * Malaysia * Maldives * Mali * Malta * Marshall Islands * Martinique (FR) * Mauritania * Mauritius * Mayotte (FR) * Mexico * Micronesia * Moldova * Monaco * Mongolia * Montenegro * Montserrat (GB) * Morocco * Mozambique * Myanmar * Namibia * Nauru * Navassa (US) * Nepal * Netherlands * New Caledonia (FR) * New Zealand * Nicaragua * Niger * Nigeria * Niue (NZ) * Norfolk Island (AU) * North Korea * Northern Cyprus * Northern Mariana Islands (US) * Norway * Oman * Pakistan * Palau * Palestinian Authority * Panama * Papua New Guinea * Paraguay * Peru * Philippines * Pitcairn Island (GB) * Poland * Portugal * Puerto Rico (US) * Qatar * Reunion (FR) * Romania * Russia * Rwanda * Saba (NL) * Saint Barthelemy (FR) * Saint Helena (GB) * Saint Kitts and Nevis * Saint Lucia * Saint Martin (FR) * Saint Pierre and Miquelon (FR) * Saint Vincent and the Grenadines * Samoa * San Marino * Sao Tome and Principe * Saudi Arabia * Senegal * Serbia * Seychelles * Sierra Leone * Singapore * Sint Eustatius (NL) * Sint Maarten (NL) * Slovakia * Slovenia * Solomon Islands * Somalia * South Africa * South Georgia (GB) * South Korea * South Sudan * Spain * Sri Lanka * Sudan * Suriname * Svalbard (NO) * Swaziland * Sweden * Switzerland * Syria * Taiwan * Tajikistan * Tanzania * Thailand * Togo * Tokelau (NZ) * Tonga * Trinidad and Tobago * Tunisia * Turkey * Turkmenistan * Turks and Caicos Islands (GB) * Tuvalu * U.S. Minor Pacific Islands (US) * U.S. Virgin Islands (US) * Uganda * Ukraine * United Arab Emirates * United Kingdom * United States * Uruguay * Uzbekistan * Vanuatu * Vatican City * Venezuela * Vietnam * Wallis and Futuna (FR) * Yemen * Zambia * Zimbabwe and major cities such as Tokyo, Yokohama, New York City, Sao Paulo, Seoul, Mexico City, Osaka, Kobe, Kyoto, Manila, Mumbai, Delhi, Jakarta, Lagos, Kolkata, Cairo, Los Angeles, Buenos Aires, Rio de Janeiro, Moscow, Shanghai, Karachi, Paris, Istanbul, Nagoya, Beijing, Chicago, London, Shenzhen, Essen, Düsseldorf, Tehran, Bogota, Lima, Bangkok, Johannesburg, East Rand, Chennai, Taipei, Baghdad, Santiago, Bangalore, Hyderabad, St Petersburg, Philadelphia, Lahore, Kinshasa, Miami, Ho Chi Minh City, Madrid, Tianjin, Kuala Lumpur, Toronto, Milan, Shenyang, Dallas, Fort Worth, Boston, Belo Horizonte, Khartoum, Riyadh, Singapore, Washington, Detroit, Barcelona,, Houston, Athens, Berlin, Sydney, Atlanta, Guadalajara, San Francisco, Oakland, Montreal, Monterey, Melbourne, Ankara, Recife, Phoenix/Mesa, Durban, Porto Alegre, Dalian, Jeddah, Seattle, Cape Town, San Diego, Fortaleza, Curitiba, Rome, Naples, Minneapolis, St. Paul, Tel Aviv, Birmingham, Frankfurt, Lisbon, Manchester, San Juan, Katowice, Tashkent, Fukuoka, Baku, Sumqayit, St. Louis, Baltimore, Sapporo, Tampa, St. Petersburg, Taichung, Warsaw, Denver, Cologne, Bonn, Hamburg, Dubai, Pretoria, Vancouver, Beirut, Budapest, Cleveland, Pittsburgh, Campinas, Harare, Brasilia, Kuwait, Munich, Portland, Brussels, Vienna, San Jose, Damman , Copenhagen, Brisbane, Riverside, San Bernardino, Cincinnati and Accra Eagle Article Talk Read Edit View history Tools From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article is about the bird. For other uses, see Eagle (disambiguation) and Eagles (disambiguation). Eagle From left to right: golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), brown snake eagle (Circaetus cinereus), solitary eagle (Buteogallus solitarius), black eagle (Ictinaetus malaiensis) and African fish eagle (Haliaeetus vocifer). From left to right: golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), brown snake eagle (Circaetus cinereus), solitary eagle (Buteogallus solitarius), black eagle (Ictinaetus malaiensis) and African fish eagle (Haliaeetus vocifer). Scientific classificationEdit this classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Aves Order: Accipitriformes Family: Accipitridae Species See text Eagle is the common name for many large birds of prey of the family Accipitridae. Eagles belong to several groups of genera, some of which are closely related. True eagles comprise the genus Aquila. Most of the 68 species of eagles are from Eurasia and Africa.[1] Outside this area, just 14 species can be found—2 in North America, 9 in Central and South America, and 3 in Australia. Eagles are not a natural group but denote essentially any kind of bird of prey large enough to hunt sizeable (about 50 cm long or more overall) vertebrates. Description Eagles are large, powerfully-built birds of prey, with heavy heads and beaks. Even the smallest eagles, such as the booted eagle (Aquila pennata), which is comparable in size to a common buzzard (Buteo buteo) or red-tailed hawk (B. jamaicensis), have relatively longer and more evenly broad wings, and more direct, faster flight – despite the reduced size of aerodynamic feathers. Most eagles are larger than any other raptors apart from some vultures. The smallest species of eagle is the South Nicobar serpent eagle (Spilornis klossi), at 450 g (1 lb) and 40 cm (16 in). The largest species are discussed below. Like all birds of prey, eagles have very large hooked beaks for ripping flesh from their prey, strong, muscular legs, and powerful talons. The beak is typically heavier than that of most other birds of prey. Eagles' eyes are extremely powerful. It is estimated that the wedge-tailed eagle has a visual acuity twice that of a typical human.[2][3][4] This acuity enables eagles to spot potential prey from a very long distance. This keen eyesight is primarily attributed to their extremely large pupils which ensure minimal diffraction (scattering) of the incoming light. The female of all known species of eagles is larger than the male.[5][6] Eagles normally build their nests, called eyries, in tall trees or on high cliffs. Many species lay two eggs, but the older, larger chick frequently kills its younger sibling once it has hatched. The parents take no action to stop the killing.[7][8] It is said that eagles fly above clouds but this is not true. Eagles fly during storms and glide from the wind’s pressure. This saves the bird's energy. Due to the size and power of many eagle species, they are ranked at the top of the food chain as apex predators in the avian world. The type of prey varies by genus. The Haliaeetus and Ichthyophaga eagles prefer to capture fish, though the species in the former often capture various animals, especially other water birds, and are powerful kleptoparasites of other birds. The snake and serpent eagles of the genera Circaetus, Terathopius, and Spilornis predominantly prey on the great diversity of snakes found in the tropics of Africa and Asia. The eagles of the genus Aquila are often the top birds of prey in open habitats, taking almost any medium-sized vertebrate they can catch. Where Aquila eagles are absent, other eagles, such as the buteonine black-chested buzzard-eagle of South America, may assume the position of top raptorial predator in open areas. Many other eagles, including the species-rich genus Spizaetus, live predominantly in woodlands and forests. These eagles often target various arboreal or ground-dwelling mammals and birds, which are often unsuspectingly ambushed in such dense, knotty environments. Hunting techniques differ among the species and genera, with some individual eagles having engaged in quite varied techniques based on their environment and prey at any given time. Most eagles grab prey without landing and take flight with it, so the prey can be carried to a perch and torn apart.[9] The bald eagle is noted for having flown with the heaviest load verified to be carried by any flying bird, since one eagle flew with a 6.8 kg (15 lb) mule deer fawn.[10][11] However, a few eagles may target prey considerably heavier than themselves; such prey is too heavy to fly with, thus it is either eaten at the site of the kill or taken in pieces back to a perch or nest. Golden and crowned eagles have killed ungulates weighing up to 30 kg (66 lb) and a martial eagle even killed a 37 kg (82 lb) duiker, 7–8 times heavier than the preying eagle.[9][12] Authors on birds David Allen Sibley, Pete Dunne, and Clay Sutton described the behavioral difference between hunting eagles and other birds of prey thus (in this case the bald and golden eagles as compared to other North American raptors):[13] They have at least one singular characteristic. It has been observed that most birds of prey look back over their shoulders before striking prey (or shortly thereafter); predation is after all a two-edged sword. All hawks seem to have this habit, from the smallest kestrel to the largest Ferruginous – but not the Eagles. Among the eagles are some of the largest birds of prey: only the condors and some of the Old World vultures are markedly larger. It is regularly debated which should be considered the largest species of eagle. They could be measured variously in total length, body mass, or wingspan. Different lifestyle needs among various eagles result in variable measurements from species to species. For example, many forest-dwelling eagles, including the very large harpy eagle, have relatively short wingspans, a feature necessary for being able to maneuver in quick, short bursts through densely forested habitats.[9] Eagles in the genus Aquila, found almost exclusively in open country, are noted for their ability to soar, and have relatively long wings for their size.[9] These lists of the top five eagles are based on weight, length, and wingspan, respectively. Unless otherwise noted by reference, the figures listed are the median reported for each measurement in the guide Raptors of the World[14] in which only measurements that could be personally verified by the authors were listed.[9] Rank Common name Scientific name Body mass 1 Steller's sea eagle Haliaeetus pelagicus 6.7 kg (14+3⁄4 lb) 2 Harpy eagle Harpia harpyja 6.35 kg (14 lb) 3 Philippine eagle Pithecophaga jefferyi 5.95 kg (13 lb) 4 White-tailed eagle Haliaeetus albicilla 4.8 kg (10+1⁄2 lb)[15] 5 Martial eagle Polemaetus bellicosus 4.6 kg (10+1⁄4 lb)[15] Rank Common name Scientific name Total length 1 Philippine eagle Pithecophaga jefferyi 100 cm (3 ft 3 in)[16] 2 Harpy eagle Harpia harpyja 98.5 cm (3 ft 3 in) 3 Wedge-tailed eagle Aquila audax 95.5 cm (3 ft 2 in) 4 Steller's sea eagle Haliaeetus pelagicus 95 cm (3 ft 1 in) 5 Crowned eagle Stephanoaetus coronatus 87.5 cm (2 ft 10 in) Rank Common name Scientific name Median wingspan 1 White-tailed eagle Haliaeetus albicilla 218.5 cm (7 ft 2 in) 2 Steller's sea eagle Haliaeetus pelagicus 212.5 cm (7 ft 0 in) 3 Wedge-tailed eagle Aquila audax 210 cm (6 ft 11 in)[17][18] 4 Golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos 207 cm (6 ft 9 in) 5 Martial eagle Polemaetus bellicosus 206.5 cm (6 ft 9 in) Habitat The eagles are generally distributed in all types of habitats and nearly all parts of the world. The birds can be found in northern tundra to tropical rainforests and deserts. In North America, bald eagles and golden eagles are very common. The other nine species are endemic to Central and South America. The birds have a highly concentrated population in the Africa and eastern hemisphere. Several islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans are also rich and have distinct species of eagles.[19] Distribution Australasian Australia: wedge-tailed eagle (range extends into southern New Guinea), white-bellied sea-eagle (range extends into Asia), little eagle. New Guinea: Papuan eagle, white-bellied sea-eagle, pygmy eagle. Nearctic (USA and Canada): golden eagle (also found in Palearctic), bald eagle. Neotropical (Central and South America): Spizaetus (four species), solitary eagles (two spp.), harpy eagle, crested eagle, black-chested buzzard-eagle. Palearctic Eurasia: Golden eagle,[20] White-tailed eagle. Africa: African fish eagle, Martial Eagle, Crowned eagle, Verreaux's eagle, Tawny eagle, Long-crested eagle Groups Eagles are often informally divided into four groups.[a][22] The snake eagles are placed in the subfamily Circaetinae. The fish eagles, booted eagles, and harpy eagles have traditionally been placed in the subfamily Buteoninae together with the buzzard-hawks (buteonine hawks) and harriers. Some authors may treat these groups as tribes of the Buteoninae; Lerner & Mindell[23] proposed separating the eagle groups into their own subfamilies of Accipitridae. Fish eagles Sea eagles or fish eagles take fish as a large part of their diets, either fresh or as carrion. Proposed subfamily Haliaeetinae. Genera: Haliaeetus, Ichthyophaga. Some authors include Gypohierax angolensis, the "vulturine fish eagle" (also called the palm-nut vulture) in this group.[22] However, genetic analyses indicate it is related to a grouping of Neophron–Gypaetus–Eutriorchis (Egyptian vulture, bearded vulture (lammergeier), and Madagascar serpent eagle).[24] The fish eagles have a close genetic relationship with Haliastur and Milvus; the whole group is only distantly related to the Buteo group.[24] Booted eagles For the species Hieraaetus pennatus (Aquila pennata), see booted eagle. Main article: Booted eagles Booted eagle in flight. Booted eagles or "true eagles"[22][25] have feathered tarsi (lower legs). Tribe Aquililae or proposed subfamily Aquilinae. Genera: Aquila, Hieraaetus; Spizaetus, Oroaetus, Spizastur; Nisaetus;[24] Ictinaetus, Lophoaetus; Polemaetus; and Stephanoaetus.[22][25] See comments under eagle species for changes to the composition of these genera. Snake eagles Most snake or serpent eagles, as the name suggests, primarily prey on snakes. Subfamily Circaetinae. Genera: Circaetus, Spilornis, Dryotriorchis, Terathopius.[22] Eutriorchis (subfamily Gypaetinae or Circaetinae). Despite filling the niche of a snake eagle, genetic studies suggest that the Madagascar serpent eagle (Eutriorchis) is not related to them.[24] Harpy eagles Harpy eagles[22] or "giant forest eagles"[21] are large eagles that inhabit tropical forests. The group contains two to six species, depending on the author. Although these birds occupy similar niches and have traditionally been grouped, they are not all related: the solitary eagles are related to the black hawks and the Philippine eagle to the snake eagles. Harpy eagles (proposed subfamily Harpiinae) Harpia harpyja, harpy eagle ― Central and South America. Morphnus guianensis, crested eagle ― Central and South America. Harpyopsis novaeguineae, Papuan eagle ― New Guinea. Philippine eagle Pithecophaga jefferyi, Philippine eagle ― Philippines. Solitary eagles Chaco eagle or crowned solitary eagle, Buteogallus (formerly Harpyhaliaetus) coronatus ― South America. Solitary eagle or montane solitary eagle, Buteogallus (formerly Harpyhaliaetus) solitarius ― South America. Species Martial eagle in Namibia. Philippine eagle (Pithecophaga jefferyi) in Southern Philippines. Wedge-tailed eagle in Australia. Eastern imperial eagle in Israel Major new research into eagle taxonomy suggests that the important genera Aquila and Hieraaetus are not composed of nearest relatives, and it is likely that a reclassification of these genera will soon take place, with some species being moved to Lophaetus or Ictinaetus.[23] Bonelli's eagle and the African hawk-eagle have been moved from Hieraaetus to Aquila. Either the greater spotted eagle and lesser spotted eagle should move from Aquila to join the long-crested eagle in Lophaetus, or, perhaps better, all three of these species should move to Ictinaetus with the black eagle. The steppe eagle and tawny eagle, once thought to be conspecific, are not even each other's nearest relatives. Family Accipitridae Main article: Accipitridae Subfamily Buteoninae – hawks (buzzards), true eagles and seaeagles Genus Geranoaetus Black-chested buzzard-eagle, Geranoaetus melanoleucus Genus Harpyhaliaetus Chaco eagle, Harpyhaliaetus coronatus Solitary eagle, H. solitarius Genus Morphnus Crested eagle, Morphnus guianensis Genus Harpia Harpy eagle, Harpia harpyja Genus Pithecophaga Philippine eagle, Pithecophaga jefferyi Genus Harpyopsis Papuan eagle, Harpyopsis novaeguineae Genus Spizaetus Black hawk-eagle, S. tyrannus Ornate hawk-eagle, S. ornatus Black-and-white hawk-eagle, S. melanoleucus – formerly Spizastur Black-and-chestnut eagle, S. isidori – formerly Oroaetus Genus Nisaetus – previously included in Spizaetus Changeable hawk-eagle, N. cirrhatus Flores hawk-eagle N. floris – earlier a subspecies, S. c. floris Sulawesi hawk-eagle, N. lanceolatus Mountain hawk-eagle, N. nipalensis Legge's hawk-eagle, Nisaetus kelaarti – previously a race of S. nipalensis Blyth's hawk-eagle, N. alboniger Javan hawk-eagle, N. bartelsi (Northern) Philippine hawk-eagle, N. philippensis Pinsker's hawk-eagle (Southern Philippine hawk-eagle), Nisaetus pinskeri – earlier S. philippensis pinskeri Wallace's hawk-eagle, N. nanus Genus Lophaetus Long-crested eagle, Lophaetus occipitalis – possibly belongs in Ictinaetus Genus Stephanoaetus Crowned eagle, Stephanoaetus coronatus Malagasy crowned eagle, †Stephanoaetus mahery Genus Polemaetus Martial eagle, Polemaetus bellicosus Genus Hieraaetus Ayres's hawk-eagle, H. ayresii Little eagle, H. morphnoides Pygmy eagle, H. weiskei – previously subspecies H. m. weiskei Booted eagle, H. pennatus Haast's eagle, †H. moorei Genus Lophotriorchis Rufous-bellied eagle, L. kienerii A steppe eagle in Lahore Zoo, Pakistan Genus Aquila Bonelli's eagle, Aquila fasciata – formerly Hieraaetus fasciatus African hawk-eagle, A. spilogaster – formerly in Hieraaetus Cassin's hawk-eagle, A. africana – formerly in Hieraaetus or Spizaetus genera Golden eagle, A. chrysaetos Eastern imperial eagle, A. heliaca Spanish imperial eagle A. adalberti Steppe eagle, A. nipalensis Tawny eagle, A. rapax Greater spotted eagle, A. clanga – to be moved to Lophaetus or Ictinaetus Lesser spotted eagle, A. pomarina – to be moved to Lophaetus or Ictinaetus Indian spotted eagle, A. hastata – to be moved to Lophaetus or Ictinaetus Verreaux's eagle, A. verreauxii Gurney's eagle, A. gurneyi Wahlberg's eagle, A. wahlbergi – to be moved to Hieraaetus Wedge-tailed eagle, A. audax Genus Ictinaetus Black eagle, Ictinaetus malayensis Genus Haliaeetus White-tailed eagle, Haliaeetus albicilla Bald eagle, H. leucocephalus Steller's sea eagle, H. pelagicus African fish eagle, H. vocifer White-bellied sea eagle, H. leucogaster Sanford's sea eagle, H. sanfordi Madagascar fish eagle, H. vociferoides Pallas' sea eagle, H. leucoryphus Genus Ichthyophaga Lesser fish eagle, Ichthyophaga humilis Grey-headed fish eagle, I. ichthyaetus Short-toed snake eagle in flight Subfamily Circaetinae: snake-eagles Genus Terathopius Bateleur, Terathopius ecaudatus Genus Circaetus Short-toed snake eagle, Circaetus gallicus Beaudouin's snake eagle, Circaetus beaudouini Black-chested snake eagle, C. pectoralis Brown snake eagle, C. cinereus Fasciated snake eagle, C. fasciolatus Western banded snake eagle, C. cinerascens Genus Dryotriorchis Congo serpent eagle, D. spectabilis Genus Spilornis Crested serpent eagle, Spilornis cheela Central Nicobar serpent eagle, S. minimus (subspecies or species) Great Nicobar serpent eagle, S. klossi Mountain serpent eagle, S. kinabaluensis Sulawesi serpent eagle, S. rufipectus Philippine serpent eagle, S. holospilus Andaman serpent eagle, S. elgini Genus Eutriorchis Madagascar serpent eagle, Eutriorchis astur In culture Eagles, a Chinese Ming period painting. Located at the National Palace Museum Etymology The modern English term for the bird is derived from Latin: aquila by way of French: aigle. The origin of aquila is unknown, but it is believed to possibly derive from aquilus (meaning dark-colored, swarthy, or blackish) as a reference to the plumage of eagles. Old English used the term earn, related to Scandinavia's ørn/örn. It is similar to other Indo-European terms for "bird" or "eagle", including Greek: ὄρνις (ornís), Russian: орёл (orël), and Welsh: eryr. In the southern part of Finland, near the Gulf of Finland, is the town of Kotka, which literally means "eagle", while the town of L'Aquila in the central part of Italy literally means "the eagle". The sculpture of eagle at the top of the fountain at Plac Orła Białego in Szczecin, Poland In Britain before 1678, eagle referred specifically to the golden eagle, with the other native species, the white-tailed eagle, being known as erne. The modern name "golden eagle" for aquila chrysaetos was introduced by the naturalist John Ray.[26] The village of Eagle in Lincolnshire, England, has nothing to do with the bird; its name is derived from the Old English words for "oak" and "wood" (compare Oakley).[27] Religion and spirituality Representation of an eagle at Rio Carnival, 2014 Garuda, the vahana of Lord Vishnu, depicted with an eagle's beak and wings In ancient Sumerian mythology, the mythical king Etana was said to have been carried into heaven by an eagle.[28] Classical writers such as Lucan and Pliny the Elder claimed that the eagle was able to look directly at the sun, and that they forced their fledglings to do the same. Those that blinked would be cast from the nest. This belief persisted until the Medieval era.[29] The eagle is the patron animal of the ancient Greek god Zeus. In particular, Zeus was said to have taken the form of an eagle in order to abduct Ganymede, and there are numerous artistic depictions of the eagle Zeus bearing Ganymede aloft, from Classical times up to the present (see illustrations in the Ganymede (mythology) page.)[30] Eagles appear metaphorically in many translations of the Old Testament. God is spoken of as carrying Israel on "eagles' wings" in Exodus 19:4, Isaiah 40:31 compares those who wait on the Lord to flying eagles, and Psalm 103 mentions renewing one's youth "as the eagle". In explaining this rejuvenation, Augustine of Hippo says in his commentary on the Psalms that eagles' beaks overgrow as they age and that they break them against rocks to restore them.[31] The translation, however, is uncertain: the word in the Hebrew, נשר, can also be translated vulture,[32] and is listed alongside specific kinds of vulture in Leviticus' discussion of unclean animals. The eagle is also often used in Christian iconography to represent the Gospel of John,[33] and eagle-shaped lecterns are common in Anglican and some Roman Catholic churches.[34] The eagle was believed to be able to look directly into the sun in the same way that the Gospel of John looks directly at Jesus' divinity, and the great distances the eagle flies represent the spread of the gospel to the ends of the earth. The United States eagle feather law stipulates that only individuals of certifiable Native American ancestry enrolled in a federally recognized tribe are legally authorized to obtain eagle feathers for religious or spiritual reasons.[35] In Canada, the poaching of eagle feathers for the booming U.S. market has sometimes resulted in the arrests of First Nations person for the crime.[36] The Moche people of ancient Peru worshiped the eagle and often depicted eagles in their art.[37] While every Native American tribe has their own set of customs and beliefs, one thing virtually every tribe has in common is a reverence for eagles. Native Americans view them as powerful medicine animals that represent bravery, honor, and insight. In addition, because eagles have the ability to fly, many tribes view them as having a connection to the Creator and possessing the ability to communicate with both the physical and supernatural worlds. In fact, the mythical Native American bird, the thunderbird, is based on the eagle and yet is considered to have even greater powers. For Native Americans, eagle feathers are also sacred. Eagles and their feathers are protected under federal law. However, Native Americans with certified ancestry are permitted to obtain and use eagle feathers in spiritual ceremonies. Traditionally, when a warrior displayed bravery in a battle, he was given an eagle feather. Hence, the iconic headdresses worn by the plains tribes that contained many eagle feathers represented a brave and powerful warrior. In addition, Native Americans believe that if a person finds an eagle feather on the ground, it is a gift from the Sky and the Earth.[38] Heraldry Main article: Eagle (heraldry) This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Coat of arms of Austria. Coat of arms of Kotka, Finland Coat of arms of the United States Eagles are an exceptionally common symbol in heraldry, being considered the "King of Birds" in contrast to the lion, the "King of Beasts". Whereas the lion (e.g. England) usually represents authority, the eagle is the symbol of power. They are particularly popular in Germanic countries such as Austria, due to their association with the Holy Roman Empire. The eagle of the Holy Roman Empire was two-headed, supposedly representing the two divisions, East and West, of the old Roman Empire. This motif, derived from the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire was also adopted by the Russian Empire and is still featured in the Flag of Albania. The Roman eagle was preceded by the eagle of Ptolemaic Egypt and the Achaemenid Empire. In the coat of arms of Kotka, Finland, the eagle is depicted carrying an anchor and the caduceus on its feet. Heraldic eagles are most often found displayed, i.e. with their wings and legs extended. They can also occur close, i.e. with their wings folded, or rising, i.e. about to take flight. The heads, wings, and legs of eagles can also be found independently. Usage against drones Some eagles have been trained to take down unwanted drones (unmanned aerial vehicles). Such eagles have been deployed by Indian Border Security Force,[39] Dutch police and Swiss police. The Dutch and Swiss police later discontinued eagles' usage against drones. The Dutch police cited high training costs for the birds and training complexity as reasons to abandon their usage, while Swiss police stated that "the technological and strategic improvements in terms of the use of drones make this project using raptors too uncertain, even dangerous for the physical integrity of the eagles".[40] Following the 2023 Kremlin drone explosion, Russian politician Aleksey Zhuravlyov suggested forming "a squadron of eagle interceptors in the Kremlin and other places" to protect vital infrastructure.[41] Eagles are known to attack drones naturally. In Austria two eagles mistook a drone for a food and brought it to the ground.[42] In 2020, a bald eagle attacked and destroyed a quadcopter in Michigan, United States.[43] Notes "There are four major groups of eagles: fish eagles, booted eagles, snake eagles and giant forest eagles."[21] References del Hoyo, J.; Elliot, A. & Sargatal, J. (editors). (1994). Handbook of the Birds of the World Volume 2: New World Vultures to Guineafowl. Lynx Edicions. ISBN 84-87334-15-6 Mitkus, Mindaugas; Potier, Simon; Martin, Graham R.; Duriez, Olivier; Kelber, Almut (26 April 2018), "Raptor Vision", Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Neuroscience, doi:10.1093/acrefore/9780190264086.013.232, ISBN 978-0-19-026408-6, retrieved 12 June 2023 Martin, Graham R. (January 1986). "Vision: Shortcomings of an eagle's eye". Nature. 319 (6052): 357. doi:10.1038/319357a0. ISSN 1476-4687. PMID 3945316. S2CID 4233018. Reymond, L. (1985). "Spatial visual acuity of the eagle Aquila audax: a behavioural, optical and anatomical investigation". Vision Research. 25 (10): 1477–1491. doi:10.1016/0042-6989(85)90226-3. ISSN 0042-6989. PMID 4090282. S2CID 20680520. Leclerc, Georges (2010). The Natural History of Birds: From the French of the Count de Buffon; Illustrated with Engravings, and a Preface, Notes, and Additions, by the Translator. Cambridge University Press. pp. 60–. ISBN 978-1-108-02298-9. Archived from the original on 29 April 2016. Grambo, Rebecca L. (2003). Eagles. Voyageur Press. ISBN 978-0-89658-363-4. Archived from the original on 30 April 2016. Grambo, Rebecca L (2003). Eagles. Voyageur Press. p. 32. ISBN 978-0-89658-363-4. Stinson, Christopher H (1979). "On the Selective Advantage of Fratricide in Raptors". Evolution. 33 (4): 1219–1225. doi:10.2307/2407480. JSTOR 2407480. PMID 28563923. Ferguson-Lees, J.; Christie, D. (2001). Raptors of the World. London: Christopher Helm. ISBN 0-7136-8026-1. "Amazing Bird Records". Archived from the original on 20 June 2017. Retrieved 20 July 2012. "Deer dropped by eagle knocks out power in Montana". Reuters. 18 June 2011. Retrieved 11 July 2023. Watson, Jeff (2011). The Golden Eagle (Second ed.). ISBN 978-0-30017-019-1. Sutton, C.; Dunne, P.; Sibley, D. (1989). Hawks in Flight: The Flight Identification of North American Migrant Raptors. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. ISBN 0-3955-1022-8. Ferguson-Lees, et al.) del Hoyo, J; Elliot, A; Sargatal, J (1996). Handbook of the Birds of the World. Vol. 3. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions. ISBN 84-87334-20-2. Gamauf, A.; Preleuthner, M. & Winkler, H. (1998). "Philippine Birds of Prey: Interrelations among habitat, morphology and behavior" (PDF). The Auk. 115 (3): 713–726. doi:10.2307/4089419. JSTOR 4089419. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 August 2014. Morgan, A.M. "The spread and weight of the Wedge-tailed Eagle" (PDF). South Australian Ornithologist. 11: 156–157. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 April 2013. Wood, Gerald (1983). The Guinness Book of Animal Facts and Feats. ISBN 978-0-85112-235-9. "Eagle: Description, Pictures, & Fun Facts I TheBirdPedia". 25 December 2021. Retrieved 7 February 2022. "European Raptors: Golden Eagle". (in German). Archived from the original on 7 May 2017. Retrieved 11 September 2017. Stalcup, Carolyn. "All About Eagles". The American Eagle Foundation. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 25 May 2014. Rutledge, Hope. "Eagles of the World". American Bald Eagle Information. Archived from the original on 28 May 2014. Retrieved 11 June 2014. from Grambo, Rebecca L. (1999). Eagles. Voyageur Press, Inc. ISBN 9780896583634. Lerner, H. R. L.; Mindell, D. P. (2005). "Phylogeny of eagles, Old World vultures, and other Accipitridae based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 37 (2): 327–346. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2005.04.010. PMID 15925523. Lerner, Heather R. L.; Mindell, David P. (9 May 2006). "Accipitridae". The Tree of Life Web Project. Archived from the original on 23 December 2014. Bouglouan, Nicole. "The booted eagles throughout the world: introduction". Oiseaux-birds. Archived from the original on 17 May 2014. Retrieved 11 June 2014. "TrekNature | Whitehead eagle Photo". Retrieved 25 March 2022. Reaney, P.H. The Origin of English Place Names (1964 ed.). Routledge and Kegan Paul. p. 166. Horowitz, Wayne (1998). Mesopotamian Cosmic Geography. Winona Lake, Indiana: Eisenbrauns. pp. 43–59. ISBN 0-931464-99-4. Archived from the original on 6 December 2017. Badke, David. The Medieval Bestiary Archived 22 November 2016 at the Wayback Machine Hutchinson, John (1749). Philosophical and Theological Works of the Late Truly Learned John Hutchinson. London, UK: James Hedges. p. 402. Archived from the original on 25 April 2016. Psalm 103 Archived 8 May 2015 at the Wayback Machine in Augustine's commentary. "Lexicon: Strong's H5404 - nešer". Blue Letter Bible. 11 June 2023. Fonck, L. (1910). St. John the Evangelist. In The Catholic Encyclopedia (New York: Robert Appleton Company). Retrieved 14 August 2017 from New Advent. Delderfield, Eric R. (1966). A Guide to Church Furniture. Newton Abbot: David & Charles. Office of Law Enforcement. "National Eagle Repository". Mountain-Prairie Region. United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Archived from the original on 10 October 2007. Retrieved 20 November 2007. Sin, Lena (30 April 2006). "Charges laid in eagle-poaching case". The Province. CanWest MediaWorks Publications Inc. Archived from the original on 31 May 2009. Retrieved 20 November 2007. Larco Herrera, Rafael, and Berrin, Kathleen (1997) The Spirit of Ancient Peru Thames and Hudson, New York, ISBN 0500018022 Stanton, Kristen M. (19 August 2022). "Eagle Meaning and Symbolism". UniGuide. Archived from the original on 1 October 2022. Retrieved 1 October 2022. "The eagle is coming: Indian Army's trained birds to knockdown airborne enemy drones - WATCH". Times Now. Retrieved 7 May 2023. "Swiss drone-busting eagle squadron grounded permanently". The Register]. 8 November 2022. Retrieved 7 May 2023. "Депутат Госдумы из Воронежа Алексей Журавлев предложил создать эскадрилью орлов-перехватчиков для борьбы с дронами". Moskovskij Komsomolets (in Russian). Retrieved 7 May 2023. "A Drone Encounters Two Eagles, and the Birds Win". Smithsonian. 19 November 2015. Retrieved 7 May 2023. "Eagle dispatches EGLE drone, sparks social media delight". AOPA. 17 August 2020. Retrieved 7 May 2023. External links Look up eagle in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Wikiquote has quotations related to Eagles. Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article "Eagle". Wikimedia Commons has media related to Eagles. PBS Nature: Eagles Eagle photos Archived 6 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine on Oriental Bird Images Eagle videos on the Internet Bird Collection Web of the Conservation Biology Team-Bonelli's Eagle, of the University of Barcelona Decorah Eagles: 24/7 Live Webcam from The Raptor Resource Project Archived 1 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine EagleCAM: White-bellied Sea Eagles Live Webcam at Discovery Centre in Sydney, Australia "Eagle" . New International Encyclopedia. 1905. vte Subfamily: Buteoninae Genus Species (extinctions: † indicates a species confirmed to be extinct) Geranoaetus Black-chested buzzard-eagle Variable hawk White-tailed hawk Buteo Common buzzard Eastern buzzard Himalayan buzzard Cape Verde buzzard Socotra buzzard Red-tailed hawk Long-legged buzzard Rough-legged buzzard Ferruginous hawk Red-shouldered hawk Broad-winged hawk Swainson's hawk Ridgway's hawk White-rumped hawk Short-tailed hawk White-throated hawk Galapagos hawk Gray hawk Zone-tailed hawk Hawaiian hawk Rufous-tailed hawk Mountain buzzard Madagascar buzzard Upland buzzard Red-necked buzzard Jackal buzzard Archer's buzzard Augur buzzard Rupornis Roadside hawk Parabuteo Harris's hawk White-rumped hawk Buteogallus Rufous crab hawk Common black hawk Cuban black hawk Great black hawk Savanna hawk Busarellus Black-collared hawk Leucopternis White-browed hawk White-necked hawk Black-faced hawk Plumbeous hawk Barred hawk Slate-colored hawk Semiplumbeous hawk Pseudastur Grey-backed hawk White hawk Mantled hawk Kaupifalco Lizard buzzard Butastur Rufous-winged buzzard Grasshopper buzzard White-eyed buzzard Grey-faced buzzard Harpyhaliaetus Chaco eagle Solitary eagle Eagle Buzzard Authority control Edit this at Wikidata National Germany Israel United States Japan Czech Republic Other NARA Categories: EaglesAccipitridaeApex predatorsBird common namesNational symbols of ArmeniaNational symbols of AustriaNational symbols of the Czech RepublicNational symbols of GermanyNational symbols of GhanaNational symbols of LiechtensteinNational symbols of MexicoNational symbols of NigeriaNational symbols of PolandNational symbols of RomaniaNational symbols of SerbiaNational symbols of SpainNational symbols of SyriaNational symbols of YemenNational symbols of Zambia Birds Temporal range: Late Cretaceous – present, 72–0 Ma[1][2] PreꞒꞒOSDCPTJKPgN Possible Early Cretaceous or early Late Cretaceous origin based on molecular clock[3][4][5] Scientific classificationEdit this classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Clade: Sauropsida Clade: Avemetatarsalia Clade: Ornithurae Class: Aves Linnaeus, 1758[6] Extant clades Palaeognathae (ratites and tinamou) Struthionimorphae (ostrich) Notopalaeognathae Neognathae Pangalloanserae (fowl) Neoaves Synonyms Neornithes Gadow, 1883 Birds are a group of warm-blooded vertebrates constituting the class Aves (/ˈeɪviːz/), characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton. Birds live worldwide and range in size from the 5.5 cm (2.2 in) bee hummingbird to the 2.8 m (9 ft 2 in) common ostrich. There are about ten thousand living species, more than half of which are passerine, or "perching" birds. Birds have wings whose development varies according to species; the only known groups without wings are the extinct moa and elephant birds. Wings, which are modified forelimbs, gave birds the ability to fly, although further evolution has led to the loss of flight in some birds, including ratites, penguins, and diverse endemic island species. The digestive and respiratory systems of birds are also uniquely adapted for flight. Some bird species of aquatic environments, particularly seabirds and some waterbirds, have further evolved for swimming. The study of birds is called ornithology. Birds are feathered theropod dinosaurs and constitute the only known living dinosaurs. Likewise, birds are considered reptiles in the modern cladistic sense of the term, and their closest living relatives are the crocodilians. Birds are descendants of the primitive avialans (whose members include Archaeopteryx) which first appeared during the Late Jurassic. According to DNA evidence, modern birds (Neornithes) evolved in the Early to Late Cretaceous, and diversified dramatically around the time of the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event 66 mya, which killed off the pterosaurs and all non-avian dinosaurs.[5] Many social species pass on knowledge across generations, which is considered a form of culture. Birds are social, communicating with visual signals, calls, and songs, and participating in such behaviours as cooperative breeding and hunting, flocking, and mobbing of predators. The vast majority of bird species are socially (but not necessarily sexually) monogamous, usually for one breeding season at a time, sometimes for years, and rarely for life. Other species have breeding systems that are polygynous (one male with many females) or, rarely, polyandrous (one female with many males). Birds produce offspring by laying eggs which are fertilised through sexual reproduction. They are usually laid in a nest and incubated by the parents. Most birds have an extended period of parental care after hatching. Many species of birds are economically important as food for human consumption and raw material in manufacturing, with domesticated and undomesticated birds being important sources of eggs, meat, and feathers. Songbirds, parrots, and other species are popular as pets. Guano (bird excrement) is harvested for use as a fertiliser. Birds figure throughout human culture. About 120 to 130 species have become extinct due to human activity since the 17th century, and hundreds more before then. Human activity threatens about 1,200 bird species with extinction, though efforts are underway to protect them. Recreational birdwatching is an important part of the ecotourism industry. Evolution and classification Main article: Evolution of birds Slab of stone with fossil bones and feather impressions Archaeopteryx lithographica is often considered the oldest known true bird. The first classification of birds was developed by Francis Willughby and John Ray in their 1676 volume Ornithologiae.[7] Carl Linnaeus modified that work in 1758 to devise the taxonomic classification system currently in use.[8] Birds are categorised as the biological class Aves in Linnaean taxonomy. Phylogenetic taxonomy places Aves in the clade Theropoda.[9] Definition Aves and a sister group, the order Crocodilia, contain the only living representatives of the reptile clade Archosauria. During the late 1990s, Aves was most commonly defined phylogenetically as all descendants of the most recent common ancestor of modern birds and Archaeopteryx lithographica.[10] However, an earlier definition proposed by Jacques Gauthier gained wide currency in the 21st century, and is used by many scientists including adherents to the PhyloCode. Gauthier defined Aves to include only the crown group of the set of modern birds. This was done by excluding most groups known only from fossils, and assigning them, instead, to the broader group Avialae,[11] in part to avoid the uncertainties about the placement of Archaeopteryx in relation to animals traditionally thought of as theropod dinosaurs.[citation needed] Gauthier and de Queiroz[12] identified four different definitions for the same biological name "Aves", which is a problem. The authors proposed to reserve the term Aves only for the crown group consisting of the last common ancestor of all living birds and all of its descendants, which corresponds to meaning number 4 below. He assigned other names to the other groups.[citation needed] Reptiles Archosaurs Crocodiles Birds Turtles Squamates Lizards and snakes The birds' phylogenetic relationships to major living reptile groups Aves can mean all archosaurs closer to birds than to crocodiles (alternately Avemetatarsalia) Aves can mean those advanced archosaurs with feathers (alternately Avifilopluma) Aves can mean those feathered dinosaurs that fly (alternately Avialae) Aves can mean the last common ancestor of all the currently living birds and all of its descendants (a "crown group", in this sense synonymous with Neornithes) Under the fourth definition Archaeopteryx, traditionally considered one of the earliest members of Aves, is removed from this group, becoming a non-avian dinosaur instead. These proposals have been adopted by many researchers in the field of palaeontology and bird evolution, though the exact definitions applied have been inconsistent. Avialae, initially proposed to replace the traditional fossil content of Aves, is often used synonymously with the vernacular term "bird" by these researchers.[13] Maniraptoromorpha †Coelurus †Ornitholestes Maniraptoriformes †Ornithomimosauria Maniraptora †Alvarezsauridae Pennaraptora †Oviraptorosauria Paraves Cladogram showing the results of a phylogenetic study by Cau, 2018.[14] Most researchers define Avialae as branch-based clade, though definitions vary. Many authors have used a definition similar to "all theropods closer to birds than to Deinonychus",[15][16] with Troodon being sometimes added as a second external specifier in case it is closer to birds than to Deinonychus.[17] Avialae is also occasionally defined as an apomorphy-based clade (that is, one based on physical characteristics). Jacques Gauthier, who named Avialae in 1986, re-defined it in 2001 as all dinosaurs that possessed feathered wings used in flapping flight, and the birds that descended from them.[12][18] Despite being currently one of the most widely used, the crown-group definition of Aves has been criticised by some researchers. Lee and Spencer (1997) argued that, contrary to what Gauthier defended, this definition would not increase the stability of the clade and the exact content of Aves will always be uncertain because any defined clade (either crown or not) will have few synapomorphies distinguishing it from its closest relatives. Their alternative definition is synonymous to Avifilopluma.[19] Dinosaurs and the origin of birds Main article: Origin of birds Paraves †Scansoriopterygidae †Eosinopteryx Eumaniraptora †Jinfengopteryx †Aurornis †Dromaeosauridae †Troodontidae Avialae Cladogram following the results of a phylogenetic study by Cau et al., 2015[20] Simplified phylogenetic tree showing the relationship between modern birds and dinosaurs[21] Based on fossil and biological evidence, most scientists accept that birds are a specialised subgroup of theropod dinosaurs[22] and, more specifically, members of Maniraptora, a group of theropods which includes dromaeosaurids and oviraptorosaurs, among others.[23] As scientists have discovered more theropods closely related to birds, the previously clear distinction between non-birds and birds has become blurred. By the 2000s, discoveries in the Liaoning Province of northeast China, which demonstrated many small theropod feathered dinosaurs, contributed to this ambiguity.[24][25][26] Anchiornis huxleyi is an important source of information on the early evolution of birds in the Late Jurassic period.[27] The consensus view in contemporary palaeontology is that the flying theropods, or avialans, are the closest relatives of the deinonychosaurs, which include dromaeosaurids and troodontids.[28] Together, these form a group called Paraves. Some basal members of Deinonychosauria, such as Microraptor, have features which may have enabled them to glide or fly. The most basal deinonychosaurs were very small. This evidence raises the possibility that the ancestor of all paravians may have been arboreal, have been able to glide, or both.[29][30] Unlike Archaeopteryx and the non-avialan feathered dinosaurs, who primarily ate meat, studies suggest that the first avialans were omnivores.[31] The Late Jurassic Archaeopteryx is well known as one of the first transitional fossils to be found, and it provided support for the theory of evolution in the late 19th century. Archaeopteryx was the first fossil to display both clearly traditional reptilian characteristics—teeth, clawed fingers, and a long, lizard-like tail—as well as wings with flight feathers similar to those of modern birds. It is not considered a direct ancestor of birds, though it is possibly closely related to the true ancestor.[32] Early evolution See also: List of fossil bird genera White slab of rock left with cracks and impression of bird feathers and bone, including long paired tail feathers Confuciusornis sanctus, a Cretaceous bird from China that lived 125 million years ago, is the oldest known bird to have a beak.[33] Over 40% of key traits found in modern birds evolved during the 60 million year transition from the earliest bird-line archosaurs to the first maniraptoromorphs, i.e. the first dinosaurs closer to living birds than to Tyrannosaurus rex. The loss of osteoderms otherwise common in archosaurs and acquisition of primitive feathers might have occurred early during this phase.[14][34] After the appearance of Maniraptoromorpha, the next 40 million years marked a continuous reduction of body size and the accumulation of neotenic (juvenile-like) characteristics. Hypercarnivory became increasingly less common while braincases enlarged and forelimbs became longer.[14] The integument evolved into complex, pennaceous feathers.[34] The oldest known paravian (and probably the earliest avialan) fossils come from the Tiaojishan Formation of China, which has been dated to the late Jurassic period (Oxfordian stage), about 160 million years ago. The avialan species from this time period include Anchiornis huxleyi, Xiaotingia zhengi, and Aurornis xui.[13] The well-known probable early avialan, Archaeopteryx, dates from slightly later Jurassic rocks (about 155 million years old) from Germany. Many of these early avialans shared unusual anatomical features that may be ancestral to modern birds but were later lost during bird evolution. These features include enlarged claws on the second toe which may have been held clear of the ground in life, and long feathers or "hind wings" covering the hind limbs and feet, which may have been used in aerial maneuvering.[35] Avialans diversified into a wide variety of forms during the Cretaceous period. Many groups retained primitive characteristics, such as clawed wings and teeth, though the latter were lost independently in a number of avialan groups, including modern birds (Aves).[36] Increasingly stiff tails (especially the outermost half) can be seen in the evolution of maniraptoromorphs, and this process culminated in the appearance of the pygostyle, an ossification of fused tail vertebrae.[14] In the late Cretaceous, about 100 million years ago, the ancestors of all modern birds evolved a more open pelvis, allowing them to lay larger eggs compared to body size.[37] Around 95 million years ago, they evolved a better sense of smell.[38] A third stage of bird evolution starting with Ornithothoraces (the "bird-chested" avialans) can be associated with the refining of aerodynamics and flight capabilities, and the loss or co-ossification of several skeletal features. Particularly significant are the development of an enlarged, keeled sternum and the alula, and the loss of grasping hands. [14] Avialae †Anchiornis †Archaeopteryx †Xiaotingia †Rahonavis †Jeholornis †Jixiangornis Euavialae †Balaur Avebrevicauda †Zhongjianornis †Sapeornis Pygostylia †Confuciusornithiformes †Protopteryx †Pengornis Ornithothoraces Cladogram following the results of a phylogenetic study by Cau et al., 2015[20] Early diversity of bird ancestors See also: Protobirds and Avialae Ornithothoraces †Enantiornithes Euornithes †Archaeorhynchus Ornithuromorpha †Patagopteryx †Vorona †Schizooura †Hongshanornithidae †Jianchangornis †Songlingornithidae †Gansus †Apsaravis Ornithurae †Hesperornithes †Ichthyornis †Vegavis Aves Mesozoic bird phylogeny simplified after Wang et al., 2015's phylogenetic analysis[39] Ichthyornis, which lived 93 million years ago, was the first known prehistoric bird relative preserved with teeth. The first large, diverse lineage of short-tailed avialans to evolve were the Enantiornithes, or "opposite birds", so named because the construction of their shoulder bones was in reverse to that of modern birds. Enantiornithes occupied a wide array of ecological niches, from sand-probing shorebirds and fish-eaters to tree-dwelling forms and seed-eaters. While they were the dominant group of avialans during the Cretaceous period, enantiornithes became extinct along with many other dinosaur groups at the end of the Mesozoic era.[36] Many species of the second major avialan lineage to diversify, the Euornithes (meaning "true birds", because they include the ancestors of modern birds), were semi-aquatic and specialised in eating fish and other small aquatic organisms. Unlike the Enantiornithes, which dominated land-based and arboreal habitats, most early euornithes lacked perching adaptations and likely included shorebird-like species, waders, and swimming and diving species.[40] The latter included the superficially gull-like Ichthyornis[41] and the Hesperornithiformes, which became so well adapted to hunting fish in marine environments that they lost the ability to fly and became primarily aquatic.[36] The early euornithes also saw the development of many traits associated with modern birds, like strongly keeled breastbones, toothless, beaked portions of their jaws (though most non-avian euornithes retained teeth in other parts of the jaws).[42] Euornithes also included the first avialans to develop true pygostyle and a fully mobile fan of tail feathers,[43] which may have replaced the "hind wing" as the primary mode of aerial maneuverability and braking in flight.[35] A study on mosaic evolution in the avian skull found that the last common ancestor of all Neornithes might have had a beak similar to that of the modern hook-billed vanga and a skull similar to that of the Eurasian golden oriole. As both species are small aerial and canopy foraging omnivores, a similar ecological niche was inferred for this hypothetical ancestor.[44] Diversification of modern birds See also: Sibley–Ahlquist taxonomy of birds and dinosaur classification Aves Palaeognathae (ratites and tinamous) Neognathae Galloanserae (landfowl and waterfowl) Neoaves (all other birds including perching birds) Major groups of modern birds based on Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy Most studies agree on a Cretaceous age for the most recent common ancestor of modern birds but estimates range from the Early Cretaceous[3][45] to the latest Cretaceous.[46][4] Similarly, there is no agreement on whether most of the early diversification of modern birds occurred in the Cretaceous and associated withe breakup of the supercontinent Gondwana or occurred later and potentially as a consequence of the Cretaceous–Palaeogene extinction event.[47] This disagreement is in part caused by a divergence in the evidence; most molecular dating studies suggests a Cretaceous evolutionary radiation, while fossil evidence points to a Cenozoic radiation (the so-called 'rocks' versus 'clocks' controversy). The discovery of Vegavis from the Maastrichtian, the last stage of the Late Cretaceous proved that the diversification of modern birds started before the Cenozoic era.[48] The affinities of an earlier fossil, the possible galliform Austinornis lentus, dated to about 85 million years ago,[49] are still too controversial to provide a fossil evidence of modern bird diversification. In 2020, Asteriornis from the Maastrichtian was described, it appears to be a close relative of Galloanserae, the earliest diverging lineage within Neognathae.[1] Attempts to reconcile molecular and fossil evidence using genomic-scale DNA data and comprehensive fossil information have not resolved the controversy.[46][50] However, a 2015 estimate that used a new method for calibrating molecular clocks confirmed that while modern birds originated early in the Late Cretaceous, likely in Western Gondwana, a pulse of diversification in all major groups occurred around the Cretaceous–Palaeogene extinction event.[51] Modern birds would have expanded from West Gondwana through two routes. One route was an Antarctic interchange in the Paleogene. The other route was probably via Paleocene land bridges between South American and North America, which allowed for the rapid expansion and diversification of Neornithes into the Holarctic and Paleotropics.[51] On the other hand, the occurrence of Asteriornis in the Northern Hemisphere suggest that Neornithes dispersed out of East Gondwana before the Paleocene.[1] Classification of bird orders See also: List of birds All modern birds lie within the crown group Aves (alternately Neornithes), which has two subdivisions: the Palaeognathae, which includes the flightless ratites (such as the ostriches) and the weak-flying tinamous, and the extremely diverse Neognathae, containing all other birds.[52] These two subdivisions have variously been given the rank of superorder,[53] cohort,[9] or infraclass.[54] Depending on the taxonomic viewpoint, the number of known living bird species is around 10,906[55][56] although other sources may differ in their precise number. Cladogram of modern bird relationships based on Braun & Kimball (2021)[57] Aves Palaeognathae Struthioniformes (ostriches) Rheiformes (rheas) Apterygiformes (kiwis) Tinamiformes (tinamous) Casuariiformes (emu and cassowaries) Neognathae Galloanserae Galliformes (chickens and relatives) Anseriformes (ducks and relatives) Neoaves Mirandornithes Phoenicopteriformes (flamingos) Podicipediformes (grebes) Columbimorphae Columbiformes (pigeons and doves) Mesitornithiformes (mesites) Pterocliformes (sandgrouse) Passerea Otidiformes (bustards) Cuculiformes (cuckoos) Musophagiformes (turacos) Gruiformes (rails and cranes) Charadriiformes (waders and relatives) Opisthocomiformes (hoatzin) Strisores Caprimulgiformes (nightjars) Vanescaves Nyctibiiformes (potoos) Steatornithiformes (oilbird) Podargiformes (frogmouths) Daedalornithes Aegotheliformes (owlet-nightjars) Apodiformes (swifts, treeswifts and hummingbirds) Phaethoquornithes Eurypygimorphae Phaethontiformes (tropicbirds) Eurypygiformes (sunbittern and kagu) Aequornithes Gaviiformes[58] (loons) Austrodyptornithes Procellariiformes (albatrosses and petrels) Sphenisciformes (penguins) Ciconiiformes (storks) Suliformes (boobies, cormorants, etc.) Pelecaniformes (pelicans, herons & ibises) (Ardeae) Telluraves Accipitrimorphae Cathartiformes (New World vultures) Accipitriformes (hawks and relatives) Strigiformes (owls) Coraciimorphae Coliiformes (mousebirds) Cavitaves Leptosomiformes (cuckoo roller) Trogoniformes (trogons and quetzals) Picocoraciae Bucerotiformes (hornbills and relatives) Picodynastornithes Coraciiformes (kingfishers and relatives) Piciformes (woodpeckers and relatives) Australaves Cariamiformes (seriemas) Eufalconimorphae Falconiformes (falcons) Psittacopasserae Psittaciformes (parrots) Passeriformes (passerines) The classification of birds is a contentious issue. Sibley and Ahlquist's Phylogeny and Classification of Birds (1990) is a landmark work on the subject.[59] Most evidence seems to suggest the assignment of orders is accurate,[60] but scientists disagree about the relationships among the orders themselves; evidence from modern bird anatomy, fossils and DNA have all been brought to bear on the problem, but no strong consensus has emerged. Fossil and molecular evidence from the 2010s providing an increasingly clear picture of the evolution of modern bird orders.[46][50] Genomics See also: list of sequenced animal genomes As of 2010, the genome had been sequenced for only two birds, the chicken and the zebra finch. As of 2022 the genomes of 542 species of birds had been completed. At least one genome has been sequenced from every order.[61][62] These include at least one species in about 90% of extant avian families (218 out of 236 families recognised by the Howard and Moore Checklist).[63] Being able to sequence and compare whole genomes gives researchers many types of information, about genes, the DNA that regulates the genes, and their evolutionary history. This has led to reconsideration of some of the classifications that were based solely on the identification of protein-coding genes. Waterbirds such as pelicans and flamingos, for example, may have in common specific adaptations suited to their environment that were developed independently.[61][62] Distribution See also: Lists of birds by region and List of birds by population small bird withpale belly and breast and patterned wing and head stands on concrete The range of the house sparrow has expanded dramatically due to human activities.[64] Birds live and breed in most terrestrial habitats and on all seven continents, reaching their southern extreme in the snow petrel's breeding colonies up to 440 kilometres (270 mi) inland in Antarctica.[65] The highest bird diversity occurs in tropical regions. It was earlier thought that this high diversity was the result of higher speciation rates in the tropics; however studies from the 2000s found higher speciation rates in the high latitudes that were offset by greater extinction rates than in the tropics.[66] Many species migrate annually over great distances and across oceans; several families of birds have adapted to life both on the world's oceans and in them, and some seabird species come ashore only to breed,[67] while some penguins have been recorded diving up to 300 metres (980 ft) deep.[68] Many bird species have established breeding populations in areas to which they have been introduced by humans. Some of these introductions have been deliberate; the ring-necked pheasant, for example, has been introduced around the world as a game bird.[69] Others have been accidental, such as the establishment of wild monk parakeets in several North American cities after their escape from captivity.[70] Some species, including cattle egret,[71] yellow-headed caracara[72] and galah,[73] have spread naturally far beyond their original ranges as agricultural expansion created alternative habitats although modern practices of intensive agriculture have negatively impacted farmland bird populations.[74] Anatomy and physiology Main articles: Bird anatomy and Bird vision See also: Egg tooth External anatomy of a bird (example: yellow-wattled lapwing): 1 Beak, 2 Head, 3 Iris, 4 Pupil, 5 Mantle, 6 Lesser coverts, 7 Scapulars, 8 Median coverts, 9 Tertials, 10 Rump, 11 Primaries, 12 Vent, 13 Thigh, 14 Tibio-tarsal articulation, 15 Tarsus, 16 Foot, 17 Tibia, 18 Belly, 19 Flanks, 20 Breast, 21 Throat, 22 Wattle, 23 Eyestripe Compared with other vertebrates, birds have a body plan that shows many unusual adaptations, mostly to facilitate flight. Skeletal system Main article: Birdanatomy § Skeletalsystem The skeleton consists of very lightweight bones. They have large air-filled cavities (called pneumatic cavities) which connect with the respiratory system.[75] The skull bones in adults are fused and do not show cranial sutures.[76] The orbital cavities that house the eyeballs are large and separated from each other by a bony septum (partition). The spine has cervical, thoracic, lumbar and caudal regions with the number of cervical (neck) vertebrae highly variable and especially flexible, but movement is reduced in the anterior thoracic vertebrae and absent in the later vertebrae.[77] The last few are fused with the pelvis to form the synsacrum.[76] The ribs are flattened and the sternum is keeled for the attachment of flight muscles except in the flightless bird orders. The forelimbs are modified into wings.[78] The wings are more or less developed depending on the species; the only known groups that lost their wings are the extinct moa and elephant birds.[79] Excretory system Like the reptiles, birds are primarily uricotelic, that is, their kidneys extract nitrogenous waste from their bloodstream and excrete it as uric acid, instead of urea or ammonia, through the ureters into the intestine. Birds do not have a urinary bladder or external urethral opening and (with exception of the ostrich) uric acid is excreted along with faeces as a semisolid waste.[80][81][82] However, birds such as hummingbirds can be facultatively ammonotelic, excreting most of the nitrogenous wastes as ammonia.[83] They also excrete creatine, rather than creatinine like mammals.[76] This material, as well as the output of the intestines, emerges from the bird's cloaca.[84][85] The cloaca is a multi-purpose opening: waste is expelled through it, most birds mate by joining cloaca, and females lay eggs from it. In addition, many species of birds regurgitate pellets.[86] It is a common but not universal feature of altricial passerine nestlings (born helpless, under constant parental care) that instead of excreting directly into the nest, they produce a fecal sac. This is a mucus-covered pouch that allows parents to either dispose of the waste outside the nest or to recycle the waste through their own digestive system.[87] Reproductive system Males within Palaeognathae (with the exception of the kiwis), the Anseriformes (with the exception of screamers), and in rudimentary forms in Galliformes (but fully developed in Cracidae) possess a penis, which is never present in Neoaves.[88][89] The length is thought to be related to sperm competition.[90] For male birds to get an erection, they depend on lymphatic fluid instead of blood.[91] When not copulating, it is hidden within the proctodeum compartment within the cloaca, just inside the vent. Female birds have sperm storage tubules[92] that allow sperm to remain viable long after copulation, a hundred days in some species.[93] Sperm from multiple males may compete through this mechanism. Most female birds have a single ovary and a single oviduct, both on the left side,[94] but there are exceptions: species in at least 16 different orders of birds have two ovaries. Even these species, however, tend to have a single oviduct.[94] It has been speculated that this might be an adaptation to flight, but males have two testes, and it is also observed that the gonads in both sexes decrease dramatically in size outside the breeding season.[95][96] Also terrestrial birds generally have a single ovary, as does the platypus, an egg-laying mammal. A more likely explanation is that the egg develops a shell while passing through the oviduct over a period of about a day, so that if two eggs were to develop at the same time, there would be a risk to survival.[94] While rare, mostly abortive, parthenogenesis is not unknown in birds and eggs can be diploid, automictic and results in male offspring.[97] Birds are solely gonochoric.[98] Meaning they have two sexes: either female or male. The sex of birds is determined by the Z and W sex chromosomes, rather than by the X and Y chromosomes present in mammals. Male birds have two Z chromosomes (ZZ), and female birds have a W chromosome and a Z chromosome (WZ).[76] A complex system of disassortative mating with two morphs is involved in the white-throated sparrow Zonotrichia albicollis, where white- and tan-browed morphs of opposite sex pair, making it appear as if four sexes were involved since any individual is compatible with only a fourth of the population.[99] In nearly all species of birds, an individual's sex is determined at fertilisation. However, one 2007 study claimed to demonstrate temperature-dependent sex determination among the Australian brushturkey, for which higher temperatures during incubation resulted in a higher female-to-male sex ratio.[100] This, however, was later proven to not be the case. These birds do not exhibit temperature-dependent sex determination, but temperature-dependent sex mortality.[101] Respiratory and circulatory systems Birds have one of the most complex respiratory systems of all animal groups.[76] Upon inhalation, 75% of the fresh air bypasses the lungs and flows directly into a posterior air sac which extends from the lungs and connects with air spaces in the bones and fills them with air. The other 25% of the air goes directly into the lungs. When the bird exhales, the used air flows out of the lungs and the stored fresh air from the posterior air sac is simultaneously forced into the lungs. Thus, a bird's lungs receive a constant supply of fresh air during both inhalation and exhalation.[102] Sound production is achieved using the syrinx, a muscular chamber incorporating multiple tympanic membranes which diverges from the lower end of the trachea;[103] the trachea being elongated in some species, increasing the volume of vocalisations and the perception of the bird's size.[104] In birds, the main arteries taking blood away from the heart originate from the right aortic arch (or pharyngeal arch), unlike in the mammals where the left aortic arch forms this part of the aorta.[76] The postcava receives blood from the limbs via the renal portal system. Unlike in mammals, the circulating red blood cells in birds retain their nucleus.[105] Heart type and features Didactic model of an avian heart The avian circulatory system is driven by a four-chambered, myogenic heart contained in a fibrous pericardial sac. This pericardial sac is filled with a serous fluid for lubrication.[106] The heart itself is divided into a right and left half, each with an atrium and ventricle. The atrium and ventricles of each side are separated by atrioventricular valves which prevent back flow from one chamber to the next during contraction. Being myogenic, the heart's pace is maintained by pacemaker cells found in the sinoatrial node, located on the right atrium.[107] The sinoatrial node uses calcium to cause a depolarising signal transduction pathway from the atrium through right and left atrioventricular bundle which communicates contraction to the ventricles. The avian heart also consists of muscular arches that are made up of thick bundles of muscular layers. Much like a mammalian heart, the avian heart is composed of endocardial, myocardial and epicardial layers.[106] The atrium walls tend to be thinner than the ventricle walls, due to the intense ventricular contraction used to pump oxygenated blood throughout the body. Avian hearts are generally larger than mammalian hearts when compared to body mass. This adaptation allows more blood to be pumped to meet the high metabolic need associated with flight.[108] Organisation Birds have a very efficient system for diffusing oxygen into the blood; birds have a ten times greater surface area to gas exchange volume than mammals. As a result, birds have more blood in their capillaries per unit of volume of lung than a mammal.[108] The arteries are composed of thick elastic muscles to withstand the pressure of the ventricular contractions, and become more rigid as they move away from the heart. Blood moves through the arteries, which undergo vasoconstriction, and into arterioles which act as a transportation system to distribute primarily oxygen as well as nutrients to all tissues of the body.[109] As the arterioles move away from the heart and into individual organs and tissues they are further divided to increase surface area and slow blood flow. Blood travels through the arterioles and moves into the capillaries where gas exchange can occur.[citation needed] Capillaries are organised into capillary beds in tissues; it is here that blood exchanges oxygen for carbon dioxide waste. In the capillary beds, blood flow is slowed to allow maximum diffusion of oxygen into the tissues. Once the blood has become deoxygenated, it travels through venules then veins and back to the heart. Veins, unlike arteries, are thin and rigid as they do not need to withstand extreme pressure. As blood travels through the venules to the veins a funneling occurs called vasodilation bringing blood back to the heart.[109] Once the blood reaches the heart, it moves first into the right atrium, then the right ventricle to be pumped through the lungs for further gas exchange of carbon dioxide waste for oxygen. Oxygenated blood then flows from the lungs through the left atrium to the left ventricle where it is pumped out to the body.[citation needed] Nervous system The nervous system is large relative to the bird's size.[76] The most developed part of the brain is the one that controls the flight-related functions, while the cerebellum coordinates movement and the cerebrum controls behaviour patterns, navigation, mating and nest building. Most birds have a poor sense of smell[110] with notable exceptions including kiwis,[111] New World vultures[112] and tubenoses.[113] The avian visual system is usually highly developed. Water birds have special flexible lenses, allowing accommodation for vision in air and water.[76] Some species also have dual fovea. Birds are tetrachromatic, possessing ultraviolet (UV) sensitive cone cells in the eye as well as green, red and blue ones.[114] They also have double cones, likely to mediate achromatic vision.[115] The nictitating membrane as it covers the eye of a masked lapwing Many birds show plumage patterns in ultraviolet that are invisible to the human eye; some birds whose sexes appear similar to the naked eye are distinguished by the presence of ultraviolet reflective patches on their feathers. Male blue tits have an ultraviolet reflective crown patch which is displayed in courtship by posturing and raising of their nape feathers.[116] Ultraviolet light is also used in foraging—kestrels have been shown to search for prey by detecting the UV reflective urine trail marks left on the ground by rodents.[117] With the exception of pigeons and a few other species,[118] the eyelids of birds are not used in blinking. Instead the eye is lubricated by the nictitating membrane, a third eyelid that moves horizontally.[119] The nictitating membrane also covers the eye and acts as a contact lens in many aquatic birds.[76] The bird retina has a fan shaped blood supply system called the pecten.[76] Eyes of most birds are large, not very round and capable of only limited movement in the orbits,[76] typically 10–20°.[120] Birds with eyes on the sides of their heads have a wide visual field, while birds with eyes on the front of their heads, such as owls, have binocular vision and can estimate the depth of field.[120][121] The avian ear lacks external pinnae but is covered by feathers, although in some birds, such as the Asio, Bubo and Otus owls, these feathers form tufts which resemble ears. The inner ear has a cochlea, but it is not spiral as in mammals.[122] Defence and intraspecific combat A few species are able to use chemical defences against predators; some Procellariiformes can eject an unpleasant stomach oil against an aggressor,[123] and some species of pitohuis from New Guinea have a powerful neurotoxin in their skin and feathers.[124] A lack of field observations limit our knowledge, but intraspecific conflicts are known to sometimes result in injury or death.[125] The screamers (Anhimidae), some jacanas (Jacana, Hydrophasianus), the spur-winged goose (Plectropterus), the torrent duck (Merganetta) and nine species of lapwing (Vanellus) use a sharp spur on the wing as a weapon. The steamer ducks (Tachyeres), geese and swans (Anserinae), the solitaire (Pezophaps), sheathbills (Chionis), some guans (Crax) and stone curlews (Burhinus) use a bony knob on the alular metacarpal to punch and hammer opponents.[125] The jacanas Actophilornis and Irediparra have an expanded, blade-like radius. The extinct Xenicibis was unique in having an elongate forelimb and massive hand which likely functioned in combat or defence as a jointed club or flail. Swans, for instance, may strike with the bony spurs and bite when defending eggs or young.[125] Feathers, plumage, and scales Main articles: Feather, Flight feather, and Down feather Owl with eyes closed in front of similarly coloured tree trunk partly obscured by green leaves The disruptively patterned plumage of the African scops owl allows it to blend in with its surroundings. Feathers are a feature characteristic of birds (though also present in some dinosaurs not currently considered to be true birds). They facilitate flight, provide insulation that aids in thermoregulation, and are used in display, camouflage, and signalling.[76] There are several types of feathers, each serving its own set of purposes. Feathers are epidermal growths attached to the skin and arise only in specific tracts of skin called pterylae. The distribution pattern of these feather tracts (pterylosis) is used in taxonomy and systematics. The arrangement and appearance of feathers on the body, called plumage, may vary within species by age, social status,[126] and sex.[127] Plumage is regularly moulted; the standard plumage of a bird that has moulted after breeding is known as the "non-breeding" plumage, or—in the Humphrey–Parkes terminology—"basic" plumage; breeding plumages or variations of the basic plumage are known under the Humphrey–Parkes system as "alternate" plumages.[128] Moulting is annual in most species, although some may have two moults a year, and large birds of prey may moult only once every few years. Moulting patterns vary across species. In passerines, flight feathers are replaced one at a time with the innermost primary being the first. When the fifth of sixth primary is replaced, the outermost tertiaries begin to drop. After the innermost tertiaries are moulted, the secondaries starting from the innermost begin to drop and this proceeds to the outer feathers (centrifugal moult). The greater primary coverts are moulted in synchrony with the primary that they overlap.[129] A small number of species, such as ducks and geese, lose all of their flight feathers at once, temporarily becoming flightless.[130] As a general rule, the tail feathers are moulted and replaced starting with the innermost pair.[129] Centripetal moults of tail feathers are however seen in the Phasianidae.[131] The centrifugal moult is modified in the tail feathers of woodpeckers and treecreepers, in that it begins with the second innermost pair of feathers and finishes with the central pair of feathers so that the bird maintains a functional climbing tail.[129][132] The general pattern seen in passerines is that the primaries are replaced outward, secondaries inward, and the tail from centre outward.[133] Before nesting, the females of most bird species gain a bare brood patch by losing feathers close to the belly. The skin there is well supplied with blood vessels and helps the bird in incubation.[134] Red parrot with yellow bill and wing feathers in bill Red lory preening Feathers require maintenance and birds preen or groom them daily, spending an average of around 9% of their daily time on this.[135] The bill is used to brush away foreign particles and to apply waxy secretions from the uropygial gland; these secretions protect the feathers' flexibility and act as an antimicrobial agent, inhibiting the growth of feather-degrading bacteria.[136] This may be supplemented with the secretions of formic acid from ants, which birds receive through a behaviour known as anting, to remove feather parasites.[137] The scales of birds are composed of the same keratin as beaks, claws, and spurs. They are found mainly on the toes and metatarsus, but may be found further up on the ankle in some birds. Most bird scales do not overlap significantly, except in the cases of kingfishers and woodpeckers. The scales of birds are thought to be homologous to those of reptiles and mammals.[138] Flight Main articles: Bird flight and Flightless birds Black bird with white chest in flight with wings facing down and tail fanned and down pointing Restless flycatcher in the downstroke of flapping flight Most birds can fly, which distinguishes them from almost all other vertebrate classes. Flight is the primary means of locomotion for most bird species and is used for searching for food and for escaping from predators. Birds have various adaptations for flight, including a lightweight skeleton, two large flight muscles, the pectoralis (which accounts for 15% of the total mass of the bird) and the supracoracoideus, as well as a modified forelimb (wing) that serves as an aerofoil.[76] Wing shape and size generally determine a bird's flight style and performance; many birds combine powered, flapping flight with less energy-intensive soaring flight. About 60 extant bird species are flightless, as were many extinct birds.[139] Flightlessness often arises in birds on isolated islands, most likely due to limited resources and the absence of mammalian land predators.[140] Flightlessness is almost exclusively correlated with gigantism due to an island's inherent condition of isolation.[141] Although flightless, penguins use similar musculature and movements to "fly" through the water, as do some flight-capable birds such as auks, shearwaters and dippers.[142] Behaviour Most birds are diurnal, but some birds, such as many species of owls and nightjars, are nocturnal or crepuscular (active during twilight hours), and many coastal waders feed when the tides are appropriate, by day or night.[143] Diet and feeding Illustration of the heads of 16 types of birds with different shapes and sizes of beak Feeding adaptations in beaks Birds' diets are varied and often include nectar, fruit, plants, seeds, carrion, and various small animals, including other birds.[76] The digestive system of birds is unique, with a crop for storage and a gizzard that contains swallowed stones for grinding food to compensate for the lack of teeth.[144] Some species such as pigeons and some psittacine species do not have a gallbladder.[145] Most birds are highly adapted for rapid digestion to aid with flight.[146] Some migratory birds have adapted to use protein stored in many parts of their bodies, including protein from the intestines, as additional energy during migration.[147] Birds that employ many strategies to obtain food or feed on a variety of food items are called generalists, while others that concentrate time and effort on specific food items or have a single strategy to obtain food are considered specialists.[76] Avian foraging strategies can vary widely by species. Many birds glean for insects, invertebrates, fruit, or seeds. Some hunt insects by suddenly attacking from a branch. Those species that seek pest insects are considered beneficial 'biological control agents' and their presence encouraged in biological pest control programmes.[148] Combined, insectivorous birds eat 400–500 million metric tons of arthropods annually.[149] Nectar feeders such as hummingbirds, sunbirds, lories, and lorikeets amongst others have specially adapted brushy tongues and in many cases bills designed to fit co-adapted flowers.[150] Kiwis and shorebirds with long bills probe for invertebrates; shorebirds' varied bill lengths and feeding methods result in the separation of ecological niches.[76][151] Loons, diving ducks, penguins and auks pursue their prey underwater, using their wings or feet for propulsion,[67] while aerial predators such as sulids, kingfishers and terns plunge dive after their prey. Flamingos, three species of prion, and some ducks are filter feeders.[152][153] Geese and dabbling ducks are primarily grazers.[154][155] Some species, including frigatebirds, gulls,[156] and skuas,[157] engage in kleptoparasitism, stealing food items from other birds. Kleptoparasitism is thought to be a supplement to food obtained by hunting, rather than a significant part of any species' diet; a study of great frigatebirds stealing from masked boobies estimated that the frigatebirds stole at most 40% of their food and on average stole only 5%.[158] Other birds are scavengers; some of these, like vultures, are specialised carrion eaters, while others, like gulls, corvids, or other birds of prey, are opportunists.[159] Water and drinking Water is needed by many birds although their mode of excretion and lack of sweat glands reduces the physiological demands.[160] Some desert birds can obtain their water needs entirely from moisture in their food. They may also have other adaptations such as allowing their body temperature to rise, saving on moisture loss from evaporative cooling or panting.[161] Seabirds can drink seawater and have salt glands inside the head that eliminate excess salt out of the nostrils.[162] Most birds scoop water in their beaks and raise their head to let water run down the throat. Some species, especially of arid zones, belonging to the pigeon, finch, mousebird, button-quail and bustard families are capable of sucking up water without the need to tilt back their heads.[163] Some desert birds depend on water sources and sandgrouse are particularly well known for their daily congregations at waterholes. Nesting sandgrouse and many plovers carry water to their young by wetting their belly feathers.[164] Some birds carry water for chicks at the nest in their crop or regurgitate it along with food. The pigeon family, flamingos and penguins have adaptations to produce a nutritive fluid called crop milk that they provide to their chicks.[165] Feather care Main article: Preening Feathers, being critical to the survival of a bird, require maintenance. Apart from physical wear and tear, feathers face the onslaught of fungi, ectoparasitic feather mites and bird lice.[166] The physical condition of feathers are maintained by preening often with the application of secretions from the preen gland. Birds also bathe in water or dust themselves. While some birds dip into shallow water, more aerial species may make aerial dips into water and arboreal species often make use of dew or rain that collect on leaves. Birds of arid regions make use of loose soil to dust-bathe. A behaviour termed as anting in which the bird encourages ants to run through their plumage is also thought to help them reduce the ectoparasite load in feathers. Many species will spread out their wings and expose them to direct sunlight and this too is thought to help in reducing fungal and ectoparasitic activity that may lead to feather damage.[167][168] Migration Main article: Bird migration A flock of Canada geese in V formation Many bird species migrate to take advantage of global differences of seasonal temperatures, therefore optimising availability of food sources and breeding habitat. These migrations vary among the different groups. Many landbirds, shorebirds, and waterbirds undertake annual long-distance migrations, usually triggered by the length of daylight as well as weather conditions. These birds are characterised by a breeding season spent in the temperate or polar regions and a non-breeding season in the tropical regions or opposite hemisphere. Before migration, birds substantially increase body fats and reserves and reduce the size of some of their organs.[169][170] Migration is highly demanding energetically, particularly as birds need to cross deserts and oceans without refuelling. Landbirds have a flight range of around 2,500 km (1,600 mi) and shorebirds can fly up to 4,000 km (2,500 mi),[76] although the bar-tailed godwit is capable of non-stop flights of up to 10,200 km (6,300 mi).[171] Seabirds also undertake long migrations, the longest annual migration being those of sooty shearwaters, which nest in New Zealand and Chile and spend the northern summer feeding in the North Pacific off Japan, Alaska and California, an annual round trip of 64,000 km (39,800 mi).[172] Other seabirds disperse after breeding, travelling widely but having no set migration route. Albatrosses nesting in the Southern Ocean often undertake circumpolar trips between breeding seasons.[173] A map of the Pacific Ocean with several coloured lines representing bird routes running from New Zealand to Korea The routes of satellite-tagged bar-tailed godwits migrating north from New Zealand. This species has the longest known non-stop migration of any species, up to 10,200 km (6,300 mi). Some bird species undertake shorter migrations, travelling only as far as is required to avoid bad weather or obtain food. Irruptive species such as the boreal finches are one such group and can commonly be found at a location in one year and absent the next. This type of migration is normally associated with food availability.[174] Species may also travel shorter distances over part of their range, with individuals from higher latitudes travelling into the existing range of conspecifics; others undertake partial migrations, where only a fraction of the population, usually females and subdominant males, migrates.[175] Partial migration can form a large percentage of the migration behaviour of birds in some regions; in Australia, surveys found that 44% of non-passerine birds and 32% of passerines were partially migratory.[176] Altitudinal migration is a form of short-distance migration in which birds spend the breeding season at higher altitudes and move to lower ones during suboptimal conditions. It is most often triggered by temperature changes and usually occurs when the normal territories also become inhospitable due to lack of food.[177] Some species may also be nomadic, holding no fixed territory and moving according to weather and food availability. Parrots as a family are overwhelmingly neither migratory nor sedentary but considered to either be dispersive, irruptive, nomadic or undertake small and irregular migrations.[178] The ability of birds to return to precise locations across vast distances has been known for some time; in an experiment conducted in the 1950s, a Manx shearwater released in Boston in the United States returned to its colony in Skomer, in Wales within 13 days, a distance of 5,150 km (3,200 mi).[179] Birds navigate during migration using a variety of methods. For diurnal migrants, the sun is used to navigate by day, and a stellar compass is used at night. Birds that use the sun compensate for the changing position of the sun during the day by the use of an internal clock.[76] Orientation with the stellar compass depends on the position of the constellations surrounding Polaris.[180] These are backed up in some species by their ability to sense the Earth's geomagnetism through specialised photoreceptors.[181] Communication See also: Bird vocalisation Bird song 0:39 Song of the house wren, a common North American songbird Mimicry 0:23 A tooth-billed bowerbird mimicking a spangled drongo Drumming 0:03 A woodpecker drumming on wood Problems playing these files? See media help. Birds communicate primarily using visual and auditory signals. Signals can be interspecific (between species) and intraspecific (within species). Birds sometimes use plumage to assess and assert social dominance,[182] to display breeding condition in sexually selected species, or to make threatening displays, as in the sunbittern's mimicry of a large predator to ward off hawks and protect young chicks.[183] Large brown patterned ground bird with outstretched wings each with a large spot in the centre The startling display of the sunbittern mimics a large predator. Visual communication among birds may also involve ritualised displays, which have developed from non-signalling actions such as preening, the adjustments of feather position, pecking, or other behaviour. These displays may signal aggression or submission or may contribute to the formation of pair-bonds.[76] The most elaborate displays occur during courtship, where "dances" are often formed from complex combinations of many possible component movements;[184] males' breeding success may depend on the quality of such displays.[185] Bird calls and songs, which are produced in the syrinx, are the major means by which birds communicate with sound. This communication can be very complex; some species can operate the two sides of the syrinx independently, allowing the simultaneous production of two different songs.[103] Calls are used for a variety of purposes, including mate attraction,[76] evaluation of potential mates,[186] bond formation, the claiming and maintenance of territories,[76] the identification of other individuals (such as when parents look for chicks in colonies or when mates reunite at the start of breeding season),[187] and the warning of other birds of potential predators, sometimes with specific information about the nature of the threat.[188] Some birds also use mechanical sounds for auditory communication. The Coenocorypha snipes of New Zealand drive air through their feathers,[189] woodpeckers drum for long-distance communication,[190] and palm cockatoos use tools to drum.[191] Flocking and other associations massive flock of tiny birds seen from distance so that birds appear as specks Red-billed queleas, the most numerous species of wild bird,[192] form enormous flocks – sometimes tens of thousands strong. While some birds are essentially territorial or live in small family groups, other birds may form large flocks. The principal benefits of flocking are safety in numbers and increased foraging efficiency.[76] Defence against predators is particularly important in closed habitats like forests, where ambush predation is common and multiple eyes can provide a valuable early warning system. This has led to the development of many mixed-species feeding flocks, which are usually composed of small numbers of many species; these flocks provide safety in numbers but increase potential competition for resources.[193] Costs of flocking include bullying of socially subordinate birds by more dominant birds and the reduction of feeding efficiency in certain cases.[194] Birds sometimes also form associations with non-avian species. Plunge-diving seabirds associate with dolphins and tuna, which push shoaling fish towards the surface.[195] Some species of hornbills have a mutualistic relationship with dwarf mongooses, in which they forage together and warn each other of nearby birds of prey and other predators.[196] Resting and roosting "Roosting" redirects here. For other uses, see Roost. Pink flamingo with grey legs and long neck pressed against body and head tucked under wings Many birds, like this American flamingo, tuck their head into their back when sleeping. The high metabolic rates of birds during the active part of the day is supplemented by rest at other times. Sleeping birds often use a type of sleep known as vigilant sleep, where periods of rest are interspersed with quick eye-opening "peeks", allowing them to be sensitive to disturbances and enable rapid escape from threats.[197] Swifts are believed to be able to sleep in flight and radar observations suggest that they orient themselves to face the wind in their roosting flight.[198] It has been suggested that there may be certain kinds of sleep which are possible even when in flight.[199] Some birds have also demonstrated the capacity to fall into slow-wave sleep one hemisphere of the brain at a time. The birds tend to exercise this ability depending upon its position relative to the outside of the flock. This may allow the eye opposite the sleeping hemisphere to remain vigilant for predators by viewing the outer margins of the flock. This adaptation is also known from marine mammals.[200] Communal roosting is common because it lowers the loss of body heat and decreases the risks associated with predators.[201] Roosting sites are often chosen with regard to thermoregulation and safety.[202] Unusual mobile roost sites include large herbivores on the African savanna that are used by oxpeckers.[203] Many sleeping birds bend their heads over their backs and tuck their bills in their back feathers, although others place their beaks among their breast feathers. Many birds rest on one leg, while some may pull up their legs into their feathers, especially in cold weather. Perching birds have a tendon-locking mechanism that helps them hold on to the perch when they are asleep. Many ground birds, such as quails and pheasants, roost in trees. A few parrots of the genus Loriculus roost hanging upside down.[204] Some hummingbirds go into a nightly state of torpor accompanied with a reduction of their metabolic rates.[205] This physiological adaptation shows in nearly a hundred other species, including owlet-nightjars, nightjars, and woodswallows. One species, the common poorwill, even enters a state of hibernation.[206] Birds do not have sweat glands, but can lose water directly through the skin, and they may cool themselves by moving to shade, standing in water, panting, increasing their surface area, fluttering their throat or using special behaviours like urohidrosis to cool themselves.[207][208] Breeding See also: Category:Avian sexuality, Animal sexual behaviour § Birds, Seabird breeding behaviour, and Sexual selection in birds Social systems Bird faces up with green face, black breast and pink lower body. Elaborate long feathers on the wings and tail. Like others of its family, the male Raggiana bird-of-paradise has elaborate breeding plumage used to impress females.[209] Ninety-five per cent of bird species are socially monogamous. These species pair for at least the length of the breeding season or—in some cases—for several years or until the death of one mate.[210] Monogamy allows for both paternal care and biparental care, which is especially important for species in which care from both the female and the male parent is required in order to successfully rear a brood.[211] Among many socially monogamous species, extra-pair copulation (infidelity) is common.[212] Such behaviour typically occurs between dominant males and females paired with subordinate males, but may also be the result of forced copulation in ducks and other anatids.[213] For females, possible benefits of extra-pair copulation include getting better genes for her offspring and insuring against the possibility of infertility in her mate.[214] Males of species that engage in extra-pair copulations will closely guard their mates to ensure the parentage of the offspring that they raise.[215] Other mating systems, including polygyny, polyandry, polygamy, polygynandry, and promiscuity, also occur.[76] Polygamous breeding systems arise when females are able to raise broods without the help of males.[76] Mating systems vary across bird families[216] but variations within species are thought to be driven by environmental conditions.[217] Breeding usually involves some form of courtship display, typically performed by the male.[218] Most displays are rather simple and involve some type of song. Some displays, however, are quite elaborate. Depending on the species, these may include wing or tail drumming, dancing, aerial flights, or communal lekking. Females are generally the ones that drive partner selection,[219] although in the polyandrous phalaropes, this is reversed: plainer males choose brightly coloured females.[220] Courtship feeding, billing and allopreening are commonly performed between partners, generally after the birds have paired and mated.[221] Homosexual behaviour has been observed in males or females in numerous species of birds, including copulation, pair-bonding, and joint parenting of chicks.[222] Over 130 avian species around the world engage in sexual interactions between the same sex or homosexual behaviours. "Same-sex courtship activities may involve elaborate displays, synchronized dances, gift-giving ceremonies, or behaviors at specific display areas including bowers, arenas, or leks."[223] Territories, nesting and incubation See also: Bird nest Many birds actively defend a territory from others of the same species during the breeding season; maintenance of territories protects the food source for their chicks. Species that are unable to defend feeding territories, such as seabirds and swifts, often breed in colonies instead; this is thought to offer protection from predators. Colonial breeders defend small nesting sites, and competition between and within species for nesting sites can be intense.[224] All birds lay amniotic eggs with hard shells made mostly of calcium carbonate.[76] Hole and burrow nesting species tend to lay white or pale eggs, while open nesters lay camouflaged eggs. There are many exceptions to this pattern, however; the ground-nesting nightjars have pale eggs, and camouflage is instead provided by their plumage. Species that are victims of brood parasites have varying egg colours to improve the chances of spotting a parasite's egg, which forces female parasites to match their eggs to those of their hosts.[225] Yellow weaver (bird) with black head hangs an upside-down nest woven out of grass fronds. Male golden-backed weavers construct elaborate suspended nests out of grass. Bird eggs are usually laid in a nest. Most species create somewhat elaborate nests, which can be cups, domes, plates, mounds, or burrows.[226] Some bird nests can be a simple scrape, with minimal or no lining; most seabird and wader nests are no more than a scrape on the ground. Most birds build nests in sheltered, hidden areas to avoid predation, but large or colonial birds—which are more capable of defence—may build more open nests. During nest construction, some species seek out plant matter from plants with parasite-reducing toxins to improve chick survival,[227] and feathers are often used for nest insulation.[226] Some bird species have no nests; the cliff-nesting common guillemot lays its eggs on bare rock, and male emperor penguins keep eggs between their body and feet. The absence of nests is especially prevalent in open habitat ground-nesting species where any addition of nest material would make the nest more conspicuous. Many ground nesting birds lay a clutch of eggs that hatch synchronously, with precocial chicks led away from the nests (nidifugous) by their parents soon after hatching.[228] Nest made of straw with five white eggs and one grey speckled egg Nest of an eastern phoebe that has been parasitised by a brown-headed cowbird Incubation, which regulates temperature for chick development, usually begins after the last egg has been laid.[76] In monogamous species incubation duties are often shared, whereas in polygamous species one parent is wholly responsible for incubation. Warmth from parents passes to the eggs through brood patches, areas of bare skin on the abdomen or breast of the incubating birds. Incubation can be an energetically demanding process; adult albatrosses, for instance, lose as much as 83 grams (2.9 oz) of body weight per day of incubation.[229] The warmth for the incubation of the eggs of megapodes comes from the sun, decaying vegetation or volcanic sources.[230] Incubation periods range from 10 days (in woodpeckers, cuckoos and passerine birds) to over 80 days (in albatrosses and kiwis).[76] The diversity of characteristics of birds is great, sometimes even in closely related species. Several avian characteristics are compared in the table below.[231][232] Species Adult weight (grams) Incubation (days) Clutches (per year) Clutch size Ruby-throated hummingbird (Archilochus colubris) 3 13 2.0 2 House sparrow (Passer domesticus) 25 11 4.5 5 Greater roadrunner (Geococcyx californianus) 376 20 1.5 4 Turkey vulture (Cathartes aura) 2,200 39 1.0 2 Laysan albatross (Diomedea immutabilis) 3,150 64 1.0 1 Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) 4,000 40 1.0 1 Golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) 4,800 40 1.0 2 Wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) 6,050 28 1.0 11 Parental care and fledging Main article: Parental care in birds At the time of their hatching, chicks range in development from helpless to independent, depending on their species. Helpless chicks are termed altricial, and tend to be born small, blind, immobile and naked; chicks that are mobile and feathered upon hatching are termed precocial. Altricial chicks need help thermoregulating and must be brooded for longer than precocial chicks. The young of many bird species do not precisely fit into either the precocial or altricial category, having some aspects of each and thus fall somewhere on an "altricial-precocial spectrum".[233] Chicks at neither extreme but favouring one or the other may be termed semi-precocial[234] or semi-altricial.[235] Looking down on three helpless blind chicks in a nest within the hollow of a dead tree trunk Altricial chicks of a white-breasted woodswallow The length and nature of parental care varies widely amongst different orders and species. At one extreme, parental care in megapodes ends at hatching; the newly hatched chick digs itself out of the nest mound without parental assistance and can fend for itself immediately.[236] At the other extreme, many seabirds have extended periods of parental care, the longest being that of the great frigatebird, whose chicks take up to six months to fledge and are fed by the parents for up to an additional 14 months.[237] The chick guard stage describes the period of breeding during which one of the adult birds is permanently present at the nest after chicks have hatched. The main purpose of the guard stage is to aid offspring to thermoregulate and protect them from predation.[238] Hummingbird perched on edge of tiny nest places food into mouth of one of two chicks A female calliope hummingbird feeding fully grown chicks In some species, both parents care for nestlings and fledglings; in others, such care is the responsibility of only one sex. In some species, other members of the same species—usually close relatives of the breeding pair, such as offspring from previous broods—will help with the raising of the young.[239] Such alloparenting is particularly common among the Corvida, which includes such birds as the true crows, Australian magpie and fairy-wrens,[240] but has been observed in species as different as the rifleman and red kite. Among most groups of animals, male parental care is rare. In birds, however, it is quite common—more so than in any other vertebrate class.[76] Although territory and nest site defence, incubation, and chick feeding are often shared tasks, there is sometimes a division of labour in which one mate undertakes all or most of a particular duty.[241] The point at which chicks fledge varies dramatically. The chicks of the Synthliboramphus murrelets, like the ancient murrelet, leave the nest the night after they hatch, following their parents out to sea, where they are raised away from terrestrial predators.[242] Some other species, such as ducks, move their chicks away from the nest at an early age. In most species, chicks leave the nest just before, or soon after, they are able to fly. The amount of parental care after fledging varies; albatross chicks leave the nest on their own and receive no further help, while other species continue some supplementary feeding after fledging.[243] Chicks may also follow their parents during their first migration.[244] Brood parasites Main article: Brood parasite Small brown bird places an insect in the bill of much larger grey bird in nest Reed warbler raising a common cuckoo, a brood parasite Brood parasitism, in which an egg-layer leaves her eggs with another individual's brood, is more common among birds than any other type of organism.[245] After a parasitic bird lays her eggs in another bird's nest, they are often accepted and raised by the host at the expense of the host's own brood. Brood parasites may be either obligate brood parasites, which must lay their eggs in the nests of other species because they are incapable of raising their own young, or non-obligate brood parasites, which sometimes lay eggs in the nests of conspecifics to increase their reproductive output even though they could have raised their own young.[246] One hundred bird species, including honeyguides, icterids, and ducks, are obligate parasites, though the most famous are the cuckoos.[245] Some brood parasites are adapted to hatch before their host's young, which allows them to destroy the host's eggs by pushing them out of the nest or to kill the host's chicks; this ensures that all food brought to the nest will be fed to the parasitic chicks.[247] Sexual selection The peacock tail in flight, the classic example of a Fisherian runaway Main article: Sexual selection in birds Birds have evolved a variety of mating behaviours, with the peacock tail being perhaps the most famous example of sexual selection and the Fisherian runaway. Commonly occurring sexual dimorphisms such as size and colour differences are energetically costly attributes that signal competitive breeding situations.[248] Many types of avian sexual selection have been identified; intersexual selection, also known as female choice; and intrasexual competition, where individuals of the more abundant sex compete with each other for the privilege to mate. Sexually selected traits often evolve to become more pronounced in competitive breeding situations until the trait begins to limit the individual's fitness. Conflicts between an individual fitness and signalling adaptations ensure that sexually selected ornaments such as plumage colouration and courtship behaviour are "honest" traits. Signals must be costly to ensure that only good-quality individuals can present these exaggerated sexual ornaments and behaviours.[249] Inbreeding depression Main article: Inbreeding depression Inbreeding causes early death (inbreeding depression) in the zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata.[250] Embryo survival (that is, hatching success of fertile eggs) was significantly lower for sib-sib mating pairs than for unrelated pairs.[citation needed] Darwin's finch Geospiza scandens experiences inbreeding depression (reduced survival of offspring) and the magnitude of this effect is influenced by environmental conditions such as low food availability.[251] Inbreeding avoidance Main article: Inbreeding avoidance Incestuous matings by the purple-crowned fairy wren Malurus coronatus result in severe fitness costs due to inbreeding depression (greater than 30% reduction in hatchability of eggs).[252] Females paired with related males may undertake extra pair matings (see Promiscuity#Other animals for 90% frequency in avian species) that can reduce the negative effects of inbreeding. However, there are ecological and demographic constraints on extra pair matings. Nevertheless, 43% of broods produced by incestuously paired females contained extra pair young.[252] Inbreeding depression occurs in the great tit (Parus major) when the offspring produced as a result of a mating between close relatives show reduced fitness. In natural populations of Parus major, inbreeding is avoided by dispersal of individuals from their birthplace, which reduces the chance of mating with a close relative.[253] Southern pied babblers Turdoides bicolor appear to avoid inbreeding in two ways. The first is through dispersal, and the second is by avoiding familiar group members as mates.[254] Cooperative breeding in birds typically occurs when offspring, usually males, delay dispersal from their natal group in order to remain with the family to help rear younger kin.[255] Female offspring rarely stay at home, dispersing over distances that allow them to breed independently, or to join unrelated groups. In general, inbreeding is avoided because it leads to a reduction in progeny fitness (inbreeding depression) due largely to the homozygous expression of deleterious recessive alleles.[256] Cross-fertilisation between unrelated individuals ordinarily leads to the masking of deleterious recessive alleles in progeny.[257][258] Ecology Gran Canaria blue chaffinch, an example of a bird highly specialised in its habitat, in this case in the Canarian pine forests Birds occupy a wide range of ecological positions.[192] While some birds are generalists, others are highly specialised in their habitat or food requirements. Even within a single habitat, such as a forest, the niches occupied by different species of birds vary, with some species feeding in the forest canopy, others beneath the canopy, and still others on the forest floor. Forest birds may be insectivores, frugivores, or nectarivores. Aquatic birds generally feed by fishing, plant eating, and piracy or kleptoparasitism. Many grassland birds are granivores. Birds of prey specialise in hunting mammals or other birds, while vultures are specialised scavengers. Birds are also preyed upon by a range of mammals including a few avivorous bats.[259] A wide range of endo- and ectoparasites depend on birds and some parasites that are transmitted from parent to young have co-evolved and show host-specificity.[260] Some nectar-feeding birds are important pollinators, and many frugivores play a key role in seed dispersal.[261] Plants and pollinating birds often coevolve,[262] and in some cases a flower's primary pollinator is the only species capable of reaching its nectar.[263] Birds are often important to island ecology. Birds have frequently reached islands that mammals have not; on those islands, birds may fulfil ecological roles typically played by larger animals. For example, in New Zealand nine species of moa were important browsers, as are the kererū and kokako today.[261] Today the plants of New Zealand retain the defensive adaptations evolved to protect them from the extinct moa.[264] Many birds act as ecosystem engineers through the construction of nests, which provide important microhabitats and food for hundreds of species of invertebrates.[265][266] Nesting seabirds may affect the ecology of islands and surrounding seas, principally through the concentration of large quantities of guano, which may enrich the local soil[267] and the surrounding seas.[268] A wide variety of avian ecology field methods, including counts, nest monitoring, and capturing and marking, are used for researching avian ecology.[269] Relationship with humans Main article: Human uses of birds Two rows of cages in a dark barn with many white chickens in each cage Industrial farming of chickens Since birds are highly visible and common animals, humans have had a relationship with them since the dawn of man.[270] Sometimes, these relationships are mutualistic, like the cooperative honey-gathering among honeyguides and African peoples such as the Borana.[271] Other times, they may be commensal, as when species such as the house sparrow[272] have benefited from human activities. Several bird species have become commercially significant agricultural pests,[273] and some pose an aviation hazard.[274] Human activities can also be detrimental, and have threatened numerous bird species with extinction (hunting, avian lead poisoning, pesticides, roadkill, wind turbine kills[275] and predation by pet cats and dogs are common causes of death for birds).[276] Birds can act as vectors for spreading diseases such as psittacosis, salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis, mycobacteriosis (avian tuberculosis), avian influenza (bird flu), giardiasis, and cryptosporidiosis over long distances. Some of these are zoonotic diseases that can also be transmitted to humans.[277] Economic importance See also: Pet § Birds Illustration of fisherman on raft with pole for punting and numerous black birds on raft The use of cormorants by Asian fishermen is in steep decline but survives in some areas as a tourist attraction. Domesticated birds raised for meat and eggs, called poultry, are the largest source of animal protein eaten by humans; in 2003, 76 million tons of poultry and 61 million tons of eggs were produced worldwide.[278] Chickens account for much of human poultry consumption, though domesticated turkeys, ducks, and geese are also relatively common.[279] Many species of birds are also hunted for meat. Bird hunting is primarily a recreational activity except in extremely undeveloped areas. The most important birds hunted in North and South America are waterfowl; other widely hunted birds include pheasants, wild turkeys, quail, doves, partridge, grouse, snipe, and woodcock.[citation needed] Muttonbirding is also popular in Australia and New Zealand.[280] Although some hunting, such as that of muttonbirds, may be sustainable, hunting has led to the extinction or endangerment of dozens of species.[281] Other commercially valuable products from birds include feathers (especially the down of geese and ducks), which are used as insulation in clothing and bedding, and seabird faeces (guano), which is a valuable source of phosphorus and nitrogen. The War of the Pacific, sometimes called the Guano War, was fought in part over the control of guano deposits.[282] Birds have been domesticated by humans both as pets and for practical purposes. Colourful birds, such as parrots and mynas, are bred in captivity or kept as pets, a practice that has led to the illegal trafficking of some endangered species.[283] Falcons and cormorants have long been used for hunting and fishing, respectively. Messenger pigeons, used since at least 1 AD, remained important as recently as World War II. Today, such activities are more common either as hobbies, for entertainment and tourism,[284] Amateur bird enthusiasts (called birdwatchers, twitchers or, more commonly, birders) number in the millions.[285] Many homeowners erect bird feeders near their homes to attract various species. Bird feeding has grown into a multimillion-dollar industry; for example, an estimated 75% of households in Britain provide food for birds at some point during the winter.[286] In religion and mythology Woodcut of three long-legged and long-necked birds The 3 of Birds by the Master of the Playing Cards, 15th-century Germany Birds play prominent and diverse roles in religion and mythology. In religion, birds may serve as either messengers or priests and leaders for a deity, such as in the Cult of Makemake, in which the Tangata manu of Easter Island served as chiefs[287] or as attendants, as in the case of Hugin and Munin, the two common ravens who whispered news into the ears of the Norse god Odin. In several civilisations of ancient Italy, particularly Etruscan and Roman religion, priests were involved in augury, or interpreting the words of birds while the "auspex" (from which the word "auspicious" is derived) watched their activities to foretell events.[288] They may also serve as religious symbols, as when Jonah (Hebrew: יונה, dove) embodied the fright, passivity, mourning, and beauty traditionally associated with doves.[289] Birds have themselves been deified, as in the case of the common peacock, which is perceived as Mother Earth by the people of southern India.[290] In the ancient world, doves were used as symbols of the Mesopotamian goddess Inanna (later known as Ishtar),[291][292] the Canaanite mother goddess Asherah,[291][292][293] and the Greek goddess Aphrodite.[291][292][294][295][296] In ancient Greece, Athena, the goddess of wisdom and patron deity of the city of Athens, had a little owl as her symbol.[297][298][299] In religious images preserved from the Inca and Tiwanaku empires, birds are depicted in the process of transgressing boundaries between earthly and underground spiritual realms.[300] Indigenous peoples of the central Andes maintain legends of birds passing to and from metaphysical worlds.[300] In culture and folklore Painted tiles with design of birds from Qajar dynasty Birds have featured in culture and art since prehistoric times, when they were represented in early cave painting[301] and carvings.[302] Some birds have been perceived as monsters, including the mythological Roc and the Māori's legendary Pouākai, a giant bird capable of snatching humans.[303] Birds were later used as symbols of power, as in the magnificent Peacock Throne of the Mughal and Persian emperors.[304] With the advent of scientific interest in birds, many paintings of birds were commissioned for books.[citation needed] Among the most famous of these bird artists was John James Audubon, whose paintings of North American birds were a great commercial success in Europe and who later lent his name to the National Audubon Society.[305] Birds are also important figures in poetry; for example, Homer incorporated nightingales into his Odyssey, and Catullus used a sparrow as an erotic symbol in his Catullus 2.[306] The relationship between an albatross and a sailor is the central theme of Samuel Taylor Coleridge's The Rime of the Ancient Mariner, which led to the use of the term as a metaphor for a 'burden'.[307] Other English metaphors derive from birds; vulture funds and vulture investors, for instance, take their name from the scavenging vulture.[308] Aircraft, particularly military aircraft, are frequently named after birds. The predatory nature of raptors make them popular choices for fighter aircraft such as the F-16 Fighting Falcon and the Harrier Jump Jet, while the names of seabirds may be chosen for aircraft primarily used by naval forces such as the HU-16 Albatross and the V-22 Osprey.[309] The flag of Dominica prominently features the Sisserou Parrot, its national bird. Perceptions of bird species vary across cultures. Owls are associated with bad luck, witchcraft, and death in parts of Africa,[310] but are regarded as wise across much of Europe.[311] Hoopoes were considered sacred in Ancient Egypt and symbols of virtue in Persia, but were thought of as thieves across much of Europe and harbingers of war in Scandinavia.[312] In heraldry, birds, especially eagles, often appear in coats of arms[313] In vexillology, birds are a popular choice on flags. Birds feature in the flag designs of 17 countries and numerous subnational entities and territories.[314] Birds are used by nations to symbolize a country's identity and heritage, with 91 countries officially recognizing a national bird. Birds of prey are highly represented, though some nations have chosen other species of birds with parrots being popular among smaller, tropical nations.[315] In music Main article: Birds in music In music, birdsong has influenced composers and musicians in several ways: they can be inspired by birdsong; they can intentionally imitate bird song in a composition, as Vivaldi, Messiaen, and Beethoven did, along with many later composers; they can incorporate recordings of birds into their works, as Ottorino Respighi first did; or like Beatrice Harrison and David Rothenberg, they can duet with birds.[316][317][318][319] Conservation Main article: Bird conservation See also: Late Quaternary prehistoric birds, List of extinct birds, and Raptor conservation Large black bird with featherless head and hooked bill The California condor once numbered only 22 birds, but conservation measures have raised that to over 500 today. Although human activities have allowed the expansion of a few species, such as the barn swallow and European starling, they have caused population decreases or extinction in many other species. Over a hundred bird species have gone extinct in historical times,[320] although the most dramatic human-caused avian extinctions, eradicating an estimated 750–1800 species, occurred during the human colonisation of Melanesian, Polynesian, and Micronesian islands.[321] Many bird populations are declining worldwide, with 1,227 species listed as threatened by BirdLife International and the IUCN in 2009.[322][323] The most commonly cited human threat to birds is habitat loss.[324] Other threats include overhunting, accidental mortality due to collisions with buildings or vehicles, long-line fishing bycatch,[325] pollution (including oil spills and pesticide use),[326] competition and predation from nonnative invasive species,[327] and climate change. Governments and conservation groups work to protect birds, either by passing laws that preserve and restore bird habitat or by establishing captive populations for reintroductions. Such projects have produced some successes; one study estimated that conservation efforts saved 16 species of bird that would otherwise have gone extinct between 1994 and 2004, including the California condor and Norfolk parakeet.[328] See also Animal track Avian sleep Bat Climate change and birds Glossary of bird terms List of individual birds Ornithology Paleocene dinosaurs References Field, Daniel J.; Benito, Juan; Chen, Albert; Jagt, John W. M.; Ksepka, Daniel T. (March 2020). "Late Cretaceous neornithine from Europe illuminates the origins of crown birds". Nature. 579 (7799): 397–401. Bibcode:2020Natur.579..397F. doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2096-0. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 32188952. S2CID 212937591. De Pietri, Vanesa L.; Scofield, R. Paul; Zelenkov, Nikita; Boles, Walter E.; Worthy, Trevor H. (February 2016). 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"How many bird extinctions have we prevented?". Oryx. 40 (3): 266–79. doi:10.1017/S0030605306000950. Further reading Library resources about Bird Online books Resources in your library Resources in other libraries All the Birds of the World, Lynx Edicions, 2020. Del Hoyo, Josep; Elliott, Andrew; Sargatal, Jordi (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World (17-volume encyclopaedia), Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, 1992–2010. (Vol. 1: Ostrich to Ducks: ISBN 978-84-87334-10-8, etc.). Lederer, Roger; Carol Burr (2014). Latein für Vogelbeobachter: über 3000 ornithologische Begriffe erklärt und erforscht, aus dem Englischen übersetzt von Susanne Kuhlmannn-Krieg, Verlag DuMont, Köln, ISBN 978-3-8321-9491-8. National Geographic Field Guide to Birds of North America, National Geographic, 7th edition, 2017. ISBN 9781426218354 National Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Birds: Eastern Region, National Audubon Society, Knopf. National Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Birds: Western Region, National Audubon Society, Knopf. Svensson, Lars (2010). Birds of Europe, Princeton University Press, second edition. ISBN 9780691143927 Svensson, Lars (2010). Collins Bird Guide: The Most Complete Guide to the Birds of Britain and Europe, Collins, 2nd edition. ISBN 978-0007268146 External links Listen to this article (4 minutes) 3:48Spoken Wikipedia icon This audio file was created from a revision of this article dated 5 January 2008, and does not reflect subsequent edits. (Audio help · More spoken articles) Bird at Wikipedia's sister projects Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Resources from Wikiversity Taxa from Wikispecies The Wikibook Dichotomous Key has a page on the topic of: Aves Birdlife International – Dedicated to bird conservation worldwide; has a database with about 250,000 records on endangered bird species. Bird biogeography Birds and Science from the National Audubon Society Cornell Lab of Ornithology "Bird" at the Encyclopedia of Life Edit this at Wikidata Essays on bird biology North American Birds for Kids Archived 9 August 2010 at the Wayback Machine Ornithology Sora – Searchable online research archive; Archives of the following ornithological journals The Auk, Condor, Journal of Field Ornithology', North American Bird Bander, Studies in Avian Biology, Pacific Coast Avifauna, and the Wilson Bulletin. The Internet Bird Collection – A free library of videos of the world's birds The Institute for Bird Populations, California List of field guides to birds, from the International Field Guides database RSPB bird identifier Archived 5 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine – Interactive identification of all UK birds Are Birds Really Dinosaurs? — University of California Museum of Paleontology. vte Birds (class: Aves) Outline Anatomy BeakCrop milkDactylyEggsFeathersFlightPreen glandPlumageVision Behaviour SingingIntelligenceMigrationForagingSexual selectionLek matingSeabird breedingIncubationBrood parasitesNestingHybrids Evolution Origin of birds TheropodadinosaursOrigin of flightEvolution of birdsDarwin's finchesSeabirds Fossil birds ArchaeopteryxOmnivoropterygiformesConfuciusornithiformesEnantiornithesChaoyangiformesPatagopterygiformesAmbiortiformesSonglingornithiformesHongshanornithidaeGansuiformesIchthyornithiformesHesperornithesLithornithiformesDinornithiformesAepyornithiformesGastornithiformes Human interaction RingingOrnithologyOrnithomancyBird collectionsBirdwatching big yearBird feedingConservationAvicultureWaterfowl huntingCockfightingPigeon racingFalconryPheasantryImpingEgg collecting Lists Families and ordersGeneraGlossary of bird termsList by populationLists by regionExtinct species since 1500Late Quaternary prehistoric birdsNotable birds individualsfictional Neornithes Category Commons Portal WikiProject vte Extant chordate classes Kingdom Animalia(unranked) BilateriaSuperphylum Deuterostomia Cephalochordata Leptocardii (lancelets) Olfactores Tunicata (Urochordata) Appendicularia (larvaceans)Ascidiacea (sea squirts)Thaliacea (pyrosomes, salps, doliolids) Vertebrata Cyclostomata Myxini (hagfish)Hyperoartia (lampreys) Gnathostomata (jawed vertebrates) Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fish: sharks, rays, chimaeras) Euteleostomi (bony vertebrates) Actinopterygii (ray-finned fish) Sarcopterygii (lobe-finned fish) Actinistia (coelacanths)¹ Rhipidistia Dipnoi (lungfish)¹ Tetrapoda Lissamphibia (modern amphibians: frogs, salamanders, caecilians) Amniota Mammalia (mammals) Sauria Lepidosauria Rhynchocephalia (tuatara)²Squamata (scaled reptiles)² Archelosauria Testudines (turtles)² Archosauria Crocodilia (crocodilians)²Aves (birds) ¹subclasses of Sarcopterygii²orders of class Reptilia (reptiles)italics denote paraphyletic groups vte Maniraptora Kingdom: AnimaliaPhylum: ChordataClade: DinosauriaClade: TheropodaClade: Maniraptoriformes Avemetatarsalia see Avemetatarsalia Theropoda see Theropoda Maniraptora see below↓ Maniraptora Maniraptora †Elopteryx?†Fukuivenator?†Kakuru?†Migmanychion†Yaverlandia? †Alvarezsauroidea Aorun?BannykusHaplocheirusShishugounykusTugulusaurus?XiyunykusPatagonykinae? Alvarezsauridae Achillesaurus?AlnashetriAlvarezsaurusBradycnemeHeptasteornis Patagonykinae? BonapartenykusPatagonykus Parvicursorinae DzharaonyxKhulsanurusKol?NemegtonykusOndogurvelParvicursorQiupanykusTrierarchuncus Ceratonykini AlbinykusCeratonykusXixianykus Mononykini AlbertonykusLinhenykusMononykusShuvuuia †Therizinosauria Eshanosaurus?FalcariusFukuivenator?JianchangosaurusLingyuanosaurus Therizinosauroidea AlxasaurusBeipiaosaurusEnigmosaurusMartharaptorSuzhousaurus Therizinosauridae ErliansaurusErlikosaurusNanshiungosaurusNeimongosaurusNothronychusParalitherizinosaurusSegnosaurusTherizinosaurus Pennaraptora see below↓ Patagonykus puertai Mononykus olecranus Therizinosaurus cheloniformis Pennaraptora †Oviraptorosauria IncisivosaurusNingyuansaurusProtarchaeopteryxScansoriopterygidae? Caudipteridae CaudipteryxSimilicaudipteryxXingtianosaurus Caenagnathoidea AvimimusKol? Caenagnathidae AnomalipesBeibeilongChirostenotesGigantoraptorLeptorhynchosHagryphusMicrovenatorNomingia?Ojoraptorsaurus Elmisaurinae CitipesElmisaurus Caenagnathinae AnzuApatoraptorCaenagnathasiaCaenagnathusEpichirostenotes Oviraptoridae LuoyanggiaNankangiaNomingia?TongtianlongYulong Oviraptorinae CitipatiCorythoraptor?Huanansaurus?OviraptorRinchenia? Heyuanninae Banji?ConchoraptorGanzhousaurus?GobiraptorHeyuanniaJiangxisaurusKhaanMachairasaurusNemegtomaiaOksokoShixinggia? Paraves †Imperobator†Palaeopteryx?†Pneumatoraptor†Rahonavis †Scansoriopterygidae? AmbopteryxEpidexipteryxScansoriopteryxYi †Anchiornithidae AnchiornisAurornisCaihongEosinopteryxLiaoningvenator?OstromiaPedopennaSerikornisXiaotingiaYixianosaurus Eumaniraptora see below↓ Apatoraptor pennatus Nemegtomaia barsboldi Anchiornis huxleyi Eumaniraptora †Dromaeosauridae DaurlongPyroraptorShanagVariraptorZhenyuanlong Halszkaraptorinae? HalszkaraptorHulsanpesMahakalaNatovenator Unenlagiinae? AustroraptorBuitreraptorDakotaraptor?NeuquenraptorOrnithodesmus?PamparaptorPyroraptor?Rahonavis?UnenlagiaUnquillosaurus?Variraptor?Ypupiara Microraptoria? ChangyuraptorGraciliraptorHesperonychusMicroraptorSinornithosaurusTianyuraptorWulongZhongjianosaurus Eudromaeosauria BambiraptorDineobellatorTianyuraptor?VectiraptorZhenyuanlong? Saurornitholestinae AtrociraptorBambiraptor?Saurornitholestes Dromaeosaurinae AchillobatorDakotaraptor?Deinonychus?DromaeosauroidesDromaeosaurusItemirusSaurornitholestes?UtahraptorYurgovuchiaZapsalis Velociraptorinae AcheroraptorAdasaurusBoreonykus?Deinonychus?KansaignathusKuruLinheraptorLuanchuanraptor?Nuthetes?Saurornitholestes?ShriTsaaganVelociraptor †Troodontidae AlbertavenatorArchaeornithoides?GeminiraptorHesperornithoidesJianianhualongKoparion?LiaoningvenatorPapiliovenatorParonychodon?Polyodontosaurus?SinornithoidesTalosTochisaurusXixiasaurusAnchiornithidae? Jinfengopteryginae Almas?JinfengopteryxLiaoningvenator?Philovenator?Tamarro Sinovenatorinae DaliansaurusMeiSinovenatorSinusonasus Troodontinae BorogoviaByronosaurus?GobivenatorLatenivenatrixLinhevenatorPectinodonPhilovenator?SaurornithoidesStenonychosaurusTroodonUrbacodonZanabazar Avialae see below↓ Halszkaraptor escuilliei Austroraptor cabazai Microraptor gui Utahraptor ostrommaysorum Zanabazar junior Avialae Avialae †Alcmonavis†Balaur†Cretaaviculus?†Fukuipteryx†Overoraptor†Rahonavis?†Yandangornis†Anchiornithidae?†Scansoriopterygidae? †Archaeopterygidae? Alcmonavis?ArchaeopteryxWellnhoferiaAnchiornithidae? †Jeholornithiformes Dalianraptor?JeholornisJixiangornis?KompsornisNeimengornis Euavialae †Jixiangornis? Avebrevicauda †Zhongornis †Omnivoropterygidae OmnivoropteryxSapeornis Pygostylia †"Proornis"†Omnivoropterygidae? †Confuciusornithidae ChangchengornisConfuciusornisEoconfuciusornisYangavis †Jinguofortisidae ChongmingiaCratonavisJinguofortis Ornithothoraces see below↓ Archaeopteryx lithographica Confuciusornis sp. Ornithothoraces †Enantiornithes BrevirostruavisCastignovolucrisDalingheornisElsornisEoalulavisEocathayornis?FalcatakelyFeitianiusFortipesavisHouornisIlerdopteryxLiaoningornisLiaoxiornis?MicroenantiornisMirusavisParaprotopteryxPraeornis?ProtopteryxYuanjiawaornisYuornis Iberomesornithidae IberomesornisNoguerornis Pengornithidae ChiappeavisEopengornisParapengornisPengornisYuanchuavis Longipterygidae BoluochiaCamptodontornisDapingfangornisEvgenavis?LongipteryxLongirostravisRapaxavisShanweiniaoShengjingornis Euenantiornithes AbavornisAlethoalaornisAlexornisAvimaiaCatenoleimusCathayornisCratoavisCruralispenniaCuspirostrisornisDunhuangiaElbretornisElektorornisEnantiornisEoenantiornisExplorornisFlexomornisFortunguavisGrabauornisGracilornisGurilyniaHolbotiaHuoshanornisIncolornisJunornisKizylkumavisKuszholia?LargirostrornisLectavisLenesornisLongchengornisMartinavisMonoenantiornisMusivavisNanantiusOrienantiusOtogornisParvavisPiscivorenantiornisPlatanavis?PterygornisQilianiaSazavisShangyangSinornisXiangornisYatenavisYungavolucris Bohaiornithidae BeiguornisBohaiornisGretcheniaoLinyiornisLongusunguisParabohaiornisShenqiornisSulcavisZhouornis Gobipterygidae GobipteryxJibeinia?Vescornis? Avisauridae (sensu Cau & Arduini, 2008) Bauxitornis?Concornis?EnantiophoenixHalimornisMystiornis Avisauridae (sensu Chiappe, 1992) AvisaurusGettyiaIntiornisMirarceNeuquenornisSoroavisaurus Euornithes see below↓ Longipteryx chaoyangensis Cruralispennia multidonta Euornithes Euornithes †Archaeorhynchus†Bellulornis†Brevidentavis†Changmaornis†Changzuiornis†Chaoyangia†Dingavis†Eogranivora†Gansus†Gargantuavis?†Hollanda†Horezmavis†Iteravis†Jianchangornis†Jiuquanornis†Juehuaornis†Kaririavis†Khinganornis†Meemannavis†Platanavis†Vorona†Wyleyia?†Xinghaiornis†Yumenornis†Zhongjianornis †Schizoouridae MengciusornisSchizooura †Patagopterygiformes AlamitornisKuszholia?Patagopteryx †Ambiortiformes AmbiortusApsaravis?Palintropus? †Hongshanornithidae ArchaeornithuraHongshanornisLongicrusavisParahongshanornisTianyuornis †Songlingornithidae Hollanda?Piscivoravis?SonglingornisYanornis?Yixianornis? †Yanornithidae AbitusavisSimiliyanornisYanornis Ornithurae †Antarcticavis?†Apatornis†Cerebavis†Gallornis†Guildavis†Iaceornis†Kookne†Limenavis†Qinornis†Tingmiatornis †Ichthyornithes IchthyornisJanavis †Hesperornithes BaptornisBrodavisChupkaornisEnaliornisJudinornisPasquiaornisPotamornis Hesperornithidae AsiahesperornisCanadagaFumicollisHesperornisParahesperornis †Vegaviidae Australornis?MaaqwiNeogaeornis?PolarornisVegavis †Cimolopterygidae CeramornisCimolopteryxLamarqueavis? Aves / Neornithes Palaeognathae see Palaeognathae Neognathae PangalloanseraePanneoaves Patagopteryx deferrariisi Ichthyornis dispar See also: ArchaeornithesCarinataeDeinonychosauriaOdontognathaeOdontornithesSauriuraeUnenlagiidae Category vte Human uses of birds Activities AvicultureBirdwatching Big yearBird conservationFletchingIn sport CockfightingFalconryPigeon racingVinkensportIn science Model organismOrnithologyIn mythology and religion AugurySacred ibisSky burialIn hunting Cormorant fishingDriven grouse shootingPlume huntingWildfowling Products ChickenDownEggFeatherGuanoPoultry In the arts In art Bird-and-flower paintingFeather tightsIn heraldry AvalerionCrow/RavenEagleGallic roosterMartletTurulIn poetry The Conference of the BirdsOde to a NightingaleTo a SkylarkCrowIn prose A History of British BirdsThe Tale of Jemima Puddle-DuckThe Ugly DucklingJonathan Livingston SeagullIn theatre and ballet The BirdsSwan LakeThe FirebirdIn film The BirdsKesThe Big YearAnimated filmsChicken filmsHorror filmsIn musicIn fashion AigretteFeather boaFeather cloakIn dance CendrawasihChicken dance Species Golden eaglePenguinPigeon/DoveRaven of the Tower of London People Illustrators John James Audubon (The Birds of America)Thomas BewickJohn GouldLars JonssonJohn Gerrard KeulemansEdward LearRichard LewingtonRoger Tory PetersonHenry Constantine RichterJoseph SmitArchibald ThorburnJoseph WolfConservationists Niels KrabbePeter ScottOrganisations BirdLife InternationalRoyal Society for the Protection of BirdsWildfowl & Wetlands Trust Related Human–dinosaur coexistenceCategory:Birds and humansZoomusicology vte Lists of dinosaurs by continent Non-avian dinosaurs African MadagascanAppalachia (former continent)Asian IndianEuropeanNorth AmericanSouth AmericanAustralian and Antarctic Birds AfricanAsian IndianEuropeanNorth AmericanSouth AmericanAntarcticAustralian Taxon identifiers Wikidata: Q5113Wikispecies: AvesADW: AvesAFD: AvesBOLD: 51CoL: V2EoL: 695EPPO: 1AVESCFauna Europaea: 10699Fauna Europaea (new): f2fd1555-ab1f-40f7-9cbf-abebff1ffbdaFossilworks: 36616GBIF: 212iNaturalist: 3IRMNG: 1142ITIS: 174371NCBI: 8782NZOR: dcced4e7-06b1-466e-9d85-5a384501dac2Open Tree of Life: 81461Plazi: E1E0B077-76F6-D736-3B27-36617A705C73uBio: 21646WoRMS: 1836ZooBank: AAFCA22F-1980-4B62-9149-8887F1C1FDC1 Authority control Edit this at Wikidata National SpainFranceBnF dataGermanyIsraelUnited StatesLatviaJapanCzech Republic Other NARA Categories: BirdsAnimal classesDinosaursExtant Late Cretaceous first appearancesFeathered dinosaursSantonian first appearancesTaxa named by Carl Linnaeus This is a list of well-known real birds. For famous fictional birds, see list of fictional birds. Águia Vitória, a bald eagle who serves as the mascot for Portuguese football club S.L. Benfica Alex, a grey parrot who, in studies by Dr. Irene Pepperberg, demonstrated an ability to count; differentiate categories involving objects, colors, shapes, and materials; and understand the concept of same and different All Alone, a Second World War homing pigeon awarded the Dickin Medal, the animal equivalent of the Victoria Cross Andy, a goose born without feet who used sneakers to help him stand and walk. He was killed by an unnamed perpetrator in 1991. B95, a red knot known for being the oldest known member of his species Barry, a barred owl who lived in Central Park in New York City Beach Comber, a Second World War homing pigeon awarded the Dickin Medal Billy, a Second World War homing pigeon awarded the Dickin Medal Broad Arrow, a Second World War homing pigeon awarded the Dickin Medal Canuck, a northwestern crow who was voted Metro Vancouver's unofficial ambassador Challenger, the first bald eagle in history trained to free fly into major sporting events during the American national anthem[1] Charlie, a blue-and-yellow macaw whose owner claimed she belonged to Winston Churchill and had been taught to shout curses at Nazis Cher Ami, British-bred homing pigeon who, in the autumn of 1918, delivered 12 messages for the U.S. Army during World War I, among other things helping to save the Lost Battalion Cologne, a Second World War homing pigeon awarded the Dickin Medal Commando, a Second World War homing pigeon awarded the Dickin Medal, who carried out more than ninety missions carrying intelligence for the British Cookie, a Major Mitchell's cockatoo who at the time of his death at the age of 83, was recognized by Guinness World Records as the oldest living parrot in the world Cosmo, a grey parrot known for knowing over 200 words and being the subject of a book, Conversations with Cosmo DD.43.Q.879, a Second World War homing pigeon awarded the Dickin Medal DD.43.T.139, a Second World War homing pigeon awarded the Dickin Medal Dick the Mockingbird, a mockingbird belonging to Thomas Jefferson and believed to be the first presidential pet to live in the White House Domino Day 2005 sparrow, a house sparrow who was shot and killed after disturbing preparations for Domino Day 2005 Douglas, a scarlet macaw who played the parrot Rosalinda in the 1970 film Pippi in the South Seas Duke of Normandy, a Second World War homing pigeon awarded the Dickin Medal Dutch Coast, a Second World War homing pigeon awarded the Dickin Medal Flaco, a Eurasian eagle-owl which escaped from the Central Park Zoo after its enclosure was vandalized in February 2023.[2] Flying Dutchman, a Second World War homing pigeon awarded the Dickin Medal Gertie the Duck, a mallard duck who nested on some pilings under a bridge in Milwaukee in 1945[3][4] She (and her brood) are immortalized in RiverSculpture! G.I. Joe, a Second World War homing pigeon awarded the Dickin Medal, a member of the United States Army Pigeon Service. On 18 October 1943, the village of Calvi Vecchia, Italy was scheduled to be bombed by the Allies. He carried the message that British forces had captured the village, thus averting the attack and saving the lives of over a thousand people, both the local Italians and the British occupying troops. Goldie, a golden eagle who lived at the London Zoo in the 1960s and caused a sensation when he briefly escaped in 1965 Grape-kun, a Humboldt penguin living at the Tobu Zoo who became famous for his attachment to a cutout of an anime character Greater, a greater flamingo, the oldest flamingo on record, who died in 2014 at the Adelaide Zoo, aged at least 83 Grecia, the first toucan to receive a prosthetic beak Grip, a raven kept as a pet by Charles Dickens[5] Gustav, a Second World War homing pigeon awarded the Dickin Medal Herbie, a duck who became known in the 1970s after a clip of him skateboarding was shown on BBC news program Nationwide Incas, the last Carolina parakeet, who died in 1918 at the Cincinnati Zoo, reportedly of grief after his mate Lady Jane died a few months before him, in 1917 Jimmy, a raven who appeared in more than 1,000 feature films from the 1930s through the 1950s, including It's a Wonderful Life and The Wizard of Oz Joe, a pigeon found in Australia believed to have flown there from Oregon. He was originally at risk of being euthanized, but was ultimately pardoned after it was found he likely came from Australia and did not pose a biosecurity risk. John Silver, a First World War homing pigeon known for receiving an eye patch and a wooden leg Kenley Lass, a Second World War homing pigeon awarded the Dickin Medal The King of Rome, a successful racing pigeon who set a long-distance pigeon racing record in England Klepetan and Malena, a pair of white storks renowned for their romantic endeavors Lady Baltimore, a bald eagle living at the Juneau Raptor Center Le Vaillant, a First World War homing pigeon used by the French Army Leaping Lena, a West German racing pigeon who became lost in Czechoslovakia during a routine flight in 1954 and returned bearing a note on her leg with an anti-communist message Long Boi, an Indian Runner-mallard duck cross and unofficial mascot of the University of York who became famous due to his height (70 cm tall)[6] Louis, a parrot known for preventing development of his owner's estate from 1949 to 1966 Mandarin Patinkin (also known as Hot Duck), a mandarin duck which appeared in New York City's Central Park in 2018.[7] Mani, a rose-ringed parakeet living in Singapore, who became famous in 2010 after correctly predicting the winners for all of the 2010 FIFA World Cup quarter-final ties Manukura, the first white kiwi born in captivity Maquis, a Second World War homing pigeon awarded the Dickin Medal Mario, a Toulouse goose, formerly living in Echo Park, Los Angeles, who became the subject of news reports in 2011 after forming an unusual association with a local resident Martha, the last of the American passenger pigeons, who died at the Cincinnati Zoo in 1914. Species Requiem Day, September 1, marks Martha's passing. Mary of Exeter, a Second World War homing pigeon awarded the Dickin Medal Matilda, the world's oldest known chicken Mercury, a Second World War homing pigeon awarded the Dickin Medal Mike the Headless Chicken, a Wyandotte rooster of Fruita, Colorado, who lived for 18 months after his head was cut off. The botched decapitation in 1945 missed his brain stem and jugular vein. His owners fed him thereafter with an eyedropper, and took him on tours of the West Coast. He died in 1947. Monty and Rose, a pair of piping plovers who in 2019 were the first pair to successfully breed in Chicago in decades Mozart's starling, a common starling kept as a pet by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Navy Blue, a Second World War homing pigeon awarded the Dickin Medal Nils Olav, a king penguin, mascot and colonel-in-chief of the Norwegian King's Guard[8] N'kisi, a grey parrot known for her supposed advanced use of the English language NPS.42.NS.2780, a Second World War homing pigeon awarded the Dickin Medal NPS.42.NS.7524, a Second World War homing pigeon awarded the Dickin Medal NURP.38.BPC.6, a Second World War homing pigeon awarded the Dickin Medal NURP.43.CC.1418, a Second World War homing pigeon awarded the Dickin Medal Old Abe, an American Civil War bald eagle who was the mascot of a Wisconsin regiment, whose image was adopted in Case Corporation's logo and as the screaming eagle on the insignia of the U.S. Army's 101st Airborne Division Old Blue', a black robin who at one point was the only fertile female of the species Omid, the only Siberian crane that continues to return to Iran Paddy, a Second World War homing pigeon awarded the Dickin Medal Pag-asa, the first Philippine eagle to be bred and hatched in captivity Pale Male, a red-tailed hawk who lived near Central Park in New York City[9] Mr Percival, an Australian pelican and notable film actor Peter, a bald eagle who lived at the Philadelphia Mint during the 1830s Petra, a black swan who appeared to fall in love with a pedalo resembling a swan Petros, a pelican who became a mascot of the Greek island of Mykonos Pierre, an African penguin who became the first penguin to have bald spots restored Pink Floyd, the name given to two separate flamingos who escaped from captivity in the United States and lived in the wild for many years Princess, a Second World War homing pigeon awarded the Dickin Medal Ravachol Parrot, a parrot who lived in Pontevedra, Spain, from 1891 and 1913 and became a symbol of the city Royal Blue, a Second World War homing pigeon awarded the Dickin Medal Roy and Silo, a same-sex pair of chinstrap penguins who lived at the Central Park Zoo Rufus, a Harris's hawk used by the All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club to keep pigeons away from their venue Ruhr Express, a Second World War homing pigeon awarded the Dickin Medal Mr Rutland, an osprey introduced to England after the species went extinct there in the 1840s Scotch Lass, a Second World War homing pigeon awarded the Dickin Medal Sirocco, a hand-reared kākāpō who became an ambassador for his species and conservation in New Zealand Snowball, a male Eleonora cockatoo, noted as being the first non-human animal conclusively demonstrated to be capable of beat induction Sparkie Williams, a talking budgerigar who provided the inspiration for an opera by Michael Nyman and Carsten Nicolai Tommy, a Second World War homing pigeon awarded the Dickin Medal Tyke, a Second World War homing pigeon awarded the Dickin Medal Victoria, the first goose to receive a prosthetic beak Whipper, a budgerigar known for its unusual appearance, caused by a genetic mutation White Vision, a Second World War homing pigeon awarded the Dickin Medal William of Orange, a Second World War homing pigeon awarded the Dickin Medal Winkie, a Second World War homing pigeon awarded the Dickin Medal Wisdom, a wild female Laysan albatross. She is the oldest confirmed wild bird in the world as well as the oldest banded bird in the world. Yaren, a stork known for its friendship with a fisherman living in Eskikaraağaç village of Bursa, Turkey Zelda, a wild turkey who lived at the Battery in New York City from 2003 to 2014 Zenobia, one of the last northern bald ibises in Syria See also The cliff swallows, that return from Villa Ventana, Argentina every year to the Mission San Juan Capistrano in California about March 19 The Peabody Ducks of Memphis, Tennessee, which, in a tradition dating back to the 1930s, are escorted from their penthouse palace down the elevator every day of the year at 11:00 a.m., cross a red carpet to a Sousa march, and spend the day in the lobby fountain, returning home with equal ceremony at 5:00 p.m. The gulls, who saved the Mormon pioneers from a cricket infestation The gulls living at Japan's Kabushima Shrine, a place of worship, natural monument and popular tourist attraction The Hollywood Freeway chickens, a feral colony living under the Vineland Avenue off-ramp of the Hollywood Freeway in Los Angeles The ravens of the Tower of London, whose continuing presence there is said to maintain the general safety of the kingdom The Peace Bridge robins, a family of American robins that nested for several years on Peace Bridge in the 1930s References Moore, Roger (November 3, 2007). "How much can one football fanbase take?". Stillwater News Press. Archived from the original on November 6, 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-03. Zraick, Karen; McCarthy, Lauren (2023-02-04). "An Owl Named Flaco Is Loose in Central Park, With Vandals to Blame". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2023-02-15. Gertie the Milwaukee Duck Archived 2010-06-15 at the Wayback Machine Gertie the Duck: Symbol of Hope Lane, Raymond M. (13 January 2012). "Charles Dickens bicentennial, and his link to Poe". Washington Post. "Tall duck becomes social media sensation". BBC News. Retrieved 2022-07-14. Jacobs, Julia (2018-10-31). "A Mandarin Duck Mysteriously Appears in Central Park, to Birders' Delight". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2023-02-15. "Norwegian Knight". Scandinavian Press. Vol. 15, no. 4. Fall 2008. p. 9. Pale Male - the Central Park Red Tail Hawk vte Birds (class: Aves) Outline Anatomy BeakCrop milkDactylyEggsFeathersFlightPreen glandPlumageVision Behaviour SingingIntelligenceMigrationForagingSexual selectionLek matingSeabird breedingIncubationBrood parasitesNestingHybrids Evolution Origin of birds TheropodadinosaursOrigin of flightEvolution of birdsDarwin's finchesSeabirds Fossil birds ArchaeopteryxOmnivoropterygiformesConfuciusornithiformesEnantiornithesChaoyangiformesPatagopterygiformesAmbiortiformesSonglingornithiformesHongshanornithidaeGansuiformesIchthyornithiformesHesperornithesLithornithiformesDinornithiformesAepyornithiformesGastornithiformes Human interaction RingingOrnithologyOrnithomancyBird collectionsBirdwatching big yearBird feedingConservationAvicultureWaterfowl huntingCockfightingPigeon racingFalconryPheasantryImpingEgg collecting Lists Families and ordersGeneraGlossary of bird termsList by populationLists by regionExtinct species since 1500Late Quaternary prehistoric birdsNotable birds individualsfictional Neornithes Category Commons Portal WikiProject List of fictional birds Article Talk Read Edit View history Tools Page protected with pending changes From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Fictional birds) This list of fictional birds is subsidiary to the list of fictional animals. Ducks, penguins and birds of prey are not included here, and are listed separately at list of fictional ducks, list of fictional penguins, and list of fictional birds of prey. For non-fictional birds see List of individual birds. Struthioniformes (ostriches) Name Work Notes Big Eggo Big Eggo Madame Upanova The "Dance of the Hours" segment of Fantasia Hennie Hey Duggee Ossie The Tarax Show and Hey Hey It's Saturday Priscilla The Casagrandes Sergio's crush. Casuariformes (cassowaries and emu) Name Species Work Notes Emu Emu Emu Apterygiformes (kiwis) Name Work Notes Goodnight Kiwi Goodnight Kiwi Ivy Ivy the Kiwi? Anseriformes (waterfowl) See also List of fictional ducks and List of fictional ducks in animation Name Species Work Notes N/A Goose The Goose that Laid the Golden Eggs Alice and Chloe Canada geese Rio Gandy Goose Goose Donald Duck cartoons Gladstone Gander Goose Donald Duck cartoons Gus Goose Goose Donald Duck cartoons Louis Trumpeter swan The Trumpet of the Swan and the 2001 film of the same name Mother Goose Goose Mother Goose and Grimm Mr. Ping Goose Kung Fu Panda Syd 'Swannie' Skilton Mute swan Mascot of the Sydney Swans Wammes Waggel Goose Tom Poes Galliformes (landfowl) Name Species Work Notes Aracuan Bird East Brazilian chachalaca Walt Disney cartoons Billina Chicken Multiple Land of Oz books Booker Chicken U.S. Acres Chanticleer Chicken Rock-a-Doodle Chicken Chicken Cow and Chicken Chicken Boo Chicken Animaniacs A six-foot-tall chicken. Clara Cluck Chicken Walt Disney cartoons Cornelius Chicken Mascot of Kellogg's Corn Flakes Foghorn Leghorn Chicken Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies General Tsao Chicken Sly 3: Honor Among Thieves A Chinese general who forced the Panda King's daughter to marry him. Gobbler Turkey Beryl the Peril The pet of Beryl. Goldie Golden pheasant Rock-a-Doodle Gyro Gearloose Chicken Donald Duck cartoons Henny Penny Chicken Henny Penny More commonly known in the United States as Chicken Little. Leafie Chicken Leafie, A Hen into the Wild Lord Shen Indian peafowl Kung Fu Panda 2 A leucistic peacock. Marquis de Canteclaer Chicken Tom Poes Matilda Chicken Angry Birds Nugget Chicken Ace Combat Project ACES' mascot Panchito Pistoles Chicken The Three Caballeros Peep Chicken Peep and the Big Wide World Pickles Chicken Bionic Max Roy Chicken U.S. Acres Roya Indian peafowl Shimmer and Shine The pet of Princess Samira. Roz Specklehen Faverolles Shoe (comic strip) A waitress at Roz's Roost; serves breakfast to other birds around. Sheldon Chicken U.S. Acres An unhatched chicken egg. Super Chicken Chicken The Super Chicken segment of George of the Jungle Phoenicopteriformes (flamingos) Name Work Notes Freddy T.O.T.S. Isabel, Annabelle, and Maribelle the Flamingos 64 Zoo Lane Pinkster Wild Kratts Columbiformes (pigeons and doves) Name Species Work Notes Archimedes White dove Team Fortress 2 Bernice Pigeon Sesame Street Bert’s pet pigeon who does not know how to coo and do things that he and Ernie do Dab Dodo Ice Age Dodo Dodo Alice in Wonderland and the 1951 film by the same name Gogo Dodo Dodo Tiny Toon Adventures Gladys Pigeon Muppets from Space The Birdman’s pet pigeon and sweetheart The Goodfeathers (Squit, Bobby, and Pesto) Pigeons Animaniacs Homer Pigeon Pigeon Walter Lantz cartoons Lovey-Dove Pigeon Ghost Trick: Phantom Detective A blue pigeon who likes to sit on Pigeon Man's head Sancho Pigeon The Casagrandes A deformed pigeon who is Sergio's best friend. He has only one foot. Willow Western crowned pigeon Angry Birds Stella Yankee Doodle Pigeon Pigeon Dastardly and Muttley in their Flying Machines Cuculiformes (cuckoos and roadrunners) Name Species Work Notes Little Beeper Roadrunner Tiny Toon Adventures The Road Runner Roadrunner Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies Rowdy Roadrunner Mascot of the University of Texas at San Antonio Roadrunners Sonny the Cuckoo Bird Cuckoo Mascot of Cocoa Puffs Speed Limit Greater roadrunner Wild Kratts Caprimulgiformes (nightjars, hummingbirds, and swifts) Name Species Work Notes Flit Ruby-throated hummingbird Pocahontas and Pocahontas II: Journey to a New World Violet Sabrewing Violet sabrewing DuckTales (2017) Nyctibiidae (potoos) Name Species Work Notes Melody Common potoo Angry Birds 2 Introduced in 2022 Gruiformes (cranes, rails, and allies) Name Species Work Notes Cassandra the Crane Red-crowned crane 64 Zoo Lane Crazylegs Crane Crane The All New Pink Panther Show Master Crane Black-necked crane Kung Fu Panda Principal Secretary Crane Kiff Charadriiformes (gulls, terns, auks, and waders) Name Species Work Notes N/A Gull Gaston Lagaffe The aggressive seagull owned by Gaston Lagaffe. Garvey Gull Gull Donald Duck cartoons Gunnar the Seagull Black-headed gull 64 Zoo Lane Irving "Irv" Seagull Kelp Gull Shoe A local repairman at Irving Oil Corporation. Jonathan Livingston Seagull Lesser-black backed gull Jonathan Livingston Seagull and the 1973 film of the same name Numenia Whimbrel Numenia and the Hurricane Puffo, Mama Puffin, Puff, Finnster Atlantic puffins Wild Kratts Scuttle Gull The Little Mermaid Thomas, Sharon, Lewis and Jamie the Puffins Atlantic puffins 64 Zoo Lane Kehaar Black-headed gull Watership Down Gaviiformes (loons) Name Work Notes Becky Finding Dory Bomb Angry Birds Dave and Ping Pong Camp Lazlo Loon Shoe (comic strip) A newspaper/mail carrier and country guitar player. Shirley McLoon Tiny Toon Adventures Sphenisciformes (penguins) See List of fictional penguins Procellariiformes (albatrosses, shearwaters, petrels, and storm-petrels) Name Species Work Notes Orville Albatross The Rescuers Wilbur Albatross The Rescuers Down Under Ciconiiformes (storks) Name Species Work Notes Ava White Stork T.O.T.S. Bodhi White Stork T.O.T.S. J.P. White Stork T.O.T.S. Larrison White stork Camp Lazlo Mr. Stork White stork Dumbo and Lambert the Sheepish Lion Ollie White stork Alfred J. Kwak Seamus the Stork White stork 64 Zoo Lane Pelecaniformes (pelicans, herons, ibises, and allies) Name Species Work Notes Anabella Heron Doki Black Heron Black heron DuckTales (2017) Blue Beaky Great blue heron Wild Kratts Captain Candace Beakman American white pelican T.O.T.S. Gular Brown pelican Wild Kratts Kulinda and Ona Hamerkops The Lion Guard Mort Great white pelican Camp Lazlo Nigel Brown pelican Finding Nemo Ono Cattle egret The Lion Guard Pauline the Pelican Great white pelican 64 Zoo Lane Sebastian the Ibis White ibis Mascot of the Miami Hurricanes Seymore D. Fair American white pelican Mascot of the 1984 Louisiana World Exposition Cathartiformes (New World vultures) See List of fictional birds of prey Accipitriformes (hawks, eagles, and Old World vultures) See List of fictional birds of prey Strigiformes (owls) See List of fictional birds of prey Trogoniformes (trogons) Name Species Work Notes Burdette Resplendent quetzal It's a Big Big World Bucerotiformes (hornbills and hoopoes) Name Species Work Notes Zazu Southern red-billed hornbill The Lion King Coraciiformes (kingfishers, rollers, and bee-eaters) Name Species Work Notes Kiki Malachite kingfisher Robinson Crusoe Olly Laughing kookaburra One of the mascots of the 2000 Summer Olympics Piciformes (woodpeckers and toucans) Name Species Work Notes Eva Keel-billed toucan Rio Hal Emerald toucanet Angry Birds Headbanger Pileated woodpecker Wild Kratts Rafael Toco toucan Rio Tallulah the Toucan and Taco the Toucan Toco toucans 64 Zoo Lane Toucan Dan Toco toucan Timon & Pumbaa Toucan Sam Toucan Mascot of Froot Loops Mr. Woodbird Red-headed woodpecker T.O.T.S. Woody Woodpecker Woodpecker Walter Lantz cartoons The character resembles a pileated woodpecker, despite being inspired by an encounter with an acorn woodpecker. Falconiformes (falcons and caracaras) See List of fictional birds of prey Psittaciformes (parrots) Name Species Work Notes Abelardo Montoya Parrot Sésamo The Mexican counterpart of Big Bird. Ace Parakeet Powerbirds Andrea Parrot Kaj & Andrea A puppet from the Danish series Kaj & Andrea Arpeggio Yellow-faced parrot Sly 2: Band of Thieves The leader of the Klaww Gang who sought immortality and hoped to gain it by merging himself with the Clockwerk frame. Bia, Carla, and Tiago Spix's macaws Rio 2 Black Spot Pete Eclectus parrot Sly 3: Honor Among Thieves A pirate who stole Reme Lousteau's scuba diving gear. He later lost it to Captain LeFwee. Blu Spix's macaw Rio Full name Tyler Blu Gunderson. Captain Flint Festive amazon Treasure Island The pet of Long John Silver. Named after Captain Flint. Captain LeFwee Eclectus parrot Sly 3: Honor Among Thieves Despite being identified as a male, his coloration coincides more with the female of the species; a pirate known by many as the "smartest man on the seven seas". Carrie the Cockatoo Sulphur-crested cockatoo 64 Zoo Lane Eduardo Spix's macaw Rio 2 Felipe Scarlet macaw Rio 2 Iago Scarlet macaw Aladdin The pet of Jafar. Jewel Spix's macaw Rio José Carioca Parrot The Three Caballeros Lory Lory Alice's Adventures in Wonderland Mak Scarlet macaw Robinson Crusoe Mark Beaks Gray parrot DuckTales (2017) Mimi Spix's macaw Rio 2 Mithu Rose-ringed parakeet Meena The pet of Meena. Nigel Sulphur-crested cockatoo Rio Pirate Parrot Parrot Mascot of the Pittsburgh Pirates Poco Loco Scarlet macaw Sesame Street An anthropomorphic parrot who appeared on Sesame Street in 1974 to 1980; appears with Big Bird in some sketches Polly Cockatoo Ace Attorney Yanni Yogi's pet parrot and witness in a murder trial Polly Parakeet Powerbirds Poppy Lutino cockatiel Angry Birds Stella Polynesia Parrot Dr. Dolittle Roberto Spix's macaw Rio 2 Rio Scarlet macaw One of the Rainforest Cafe mascots Sergio Scarlet macaw The Casagrandes One of the pets of the Casagrande family. Stella Galah Angry Birds Passeriformes (perching birds) Name Species Work Notes N/A Canary King-Size Canary A canary that grows to an enormous size after a cat pours growth formula on him. Alcor Raven Little Witch Academia The pet of Professor Ursula. Big Bird Canary Sesame Street DISPUTED: Big Bird's own Wikipedia article cites conflicting statements made on episodes of Sesame Street. Big Red Northern cardinal Mascot of the Arizona Cardinals BJ Birdie and Ace Blue jay Mascot of the Toronto Blue Jays Bubbles Oriole Angry Birds Chuck Canary Angry Birds Diablo Raven Sleeping Beauty Dolf Crow Alfred J. Kwak Fredbird Northern cardinal Mascot of the St. Louis Cardinals Gale Violet-backed starling Angry Birds Stella Grip Raven Barnaby Rudge Based on Grip, a raven kept as a pet by Charles Dickens. The inspiration for Edgar Allan Poe's "The Raven".[1] Heckle and Jeckle Yellow-billed magpies Terrytoons cartoons Henry Barn swallow Henry the Barn Swallow Hugin and Munin Ravens Norse mythology and fictional works based thereon, such as American Gods and Valhalla The two ravens of Odin. Jim, Jake, and Jay Eastern bluebirds Angry Birds Collectively known as The Blues. Luca California scrub jay Angry Birds Stella Margalo Canary Stuart Little Martin Jr. Purple martin Wild Kratts Matthew Raven Sandman Molly Mockingbird Northern mockingbird Texas State Bird Pageant Moo Brown-headed cowbird Wild Kratts Mordecai Blue jay Regular Show Moses the Raven Raven Animal Farm Nico Canary Rio Nyuni Western yellow wagtail The Lion Guard The Oriole Bird Baltimore oriole Mascot of the Baltimore Orioles Pedro Red-crested cardinal Rio Phobos and Deimos Crows Sailor Moon The pet crows of Rei Hino. Pikkie Eurasian magpie Alfred J. Kwak Poe Raven Mascot of the Baltimore Ravens Quoth Raven Discworld Red Northern cardinal Angry Birds Shoe Purple martin Shoe Full name P. Martin "Shoe" Shoemaker. Skyler Eurasian Skylark Shoe An overeducated but underachieving nephew Cosmo raises. Snipes Black-billed magpie Rock-a-Doodle Spike, Mama Shrike, Thorn, Spear, and Spike Jr. Loggerhead shrikes Wild Kratts Sweet Tweet Greater honeyguide Wild Kratts Tamaa Greater racket-tailed drongo The Lion Guard Terence Northern cardinal Angry Birds Thrash Brown thrasher Mascot of the Atlanta Thrashers Tic Tic Bird Red-billed oxpecker 64 Zoo Lane Tweety Canary Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies Walt Canary The Loud House One of the pets of the Loud family. William the Weaver Bird Southern masked weaver 64 Zoo Lane Mythical bird characters Name Type Work Notes Aya Shameimaru Crow tengu Touhou Project Fawkes Phoenix Harry Potter Unspecified birds The eponymous protagonists from Angry Birds Birdie the Early Bird from the McDonald's commercials Buzby, a yellow bird of unspecified species in advertisements for British Telecom in the late 1970s/early 1980s Harvey Beaks from the show of the same name. The Phillie Phanatic, the mascot of the Philadelphia Phillies Pino, the Dutch counterpart of Big Bird in Sesamstraat Wattoo Wattoo, an oval-shaped black and white bird in Wattoo Wattoo Super Bird Woodstock, a bird of unknown species in the Charles M. Schulz's Peanuts comic strip. Fictional bird species Chocobo, a bird in the Final Fantasy series Jayhawk, part "jay" and part "hawk" this bird is the mascot of the Kansas Jayhawks sports teams and has roots in Kansas lore The Jubjub Bird from Lewis Carroll's poem "Jabberwocky" Breegulls, of which Kazooie is one, from the Banjo-Kazooie series Loftwings, flying mountable birds based on shoebills featured in The Legend of Zelda: Skyward Sword Mockingjay, central bird that is part of the Hunger Games trilogy Porgs, a species of penguin or puffin-like birds that live on Ach-To in Star Wars: The Last Jedi The Roly-Poly Bird from Roald Dahl's children books The Enormous Crocodile and The Twits The Snip Snip Bird in 64 Zoo Lane Twitter Bird, the mascot of Twitter Weatherbird, the mascot of the St. Louis Post-Dispatch; identified as a dicky-bird, a generic term for a small bird. Humans transformed into birds The six brothers turned into birds in German fairytale The Six Swans The eleven siblings cursed by their queenly stepmother in The Wild Swans Princess Odette, a human with a curse that turns her into a swan during the day in The Swan Princess The Swan Maiden, a magical bird who turns into a beautiful woman in several folktales Willy, a boy-turned-sparrow and main character in Willy the Sparrow See also List of avian humanoids List of fictional birds of prey List of fictional dinosaurs List of fictional ducks List of fictional penguins List of legendary creatures by type § Birds References Hollington, Michael (30 October 2020). "Dickens, Grip and the Corvid Family". Caliban (64): 81–99. doi:10.4000/caliban.8761. vte Lists of fictional life forms Plants Plants Animals ArthropodsFishParasitesWorms Amphibians Frogs and toads animation Reptiles CrocodiliansDinosaursSnakesTurtles Birds Birds of preyDucks animationPenguins Mammals Canines AnimationComicsLiteratureDogs prose and poetrycomicslive-action filmlive-action televisionanimationanimated filmanimated televisionvideo gamesFoxesWolves Felines AnimationComicsFilmLiteratureTelevisionBig cats animation Rodents AnimationComicsLiteratureVideo Games Non-human primates AnimationComicsFilmLiteratureTelevisionVideo games Ungulates AnimationHorsesLiteraturePachydermsPigs Miscellaneous BearsMarsupialsMusteloids animationBadgersRaccoonsPinnipedsRabbits and haresRhinogradentia Humanoids General ComicsFilmLiteratureTelevisionVideo games Specific AvianPiscine and AmphibianReptilian Other Alien species HumanoidsParasitesSymbionts Legendary By typeDragons popular culturefilm and televisiongamesliteraturemythology and folkloreEquines UnicornsWinged horsesWinged unicornsGhostsGiantsHybridsMermaidsVampires by regionDhampirsWerewolves Theological Fictional angelsFictional demonsFictional deities Categories: Fictional birdsLists of fictional birdsLists of birds Condition: Gebraucht, Condition: In Very Good Condition for its age (Please see photos), Brand: Eagle, Bird Type: Eagle, Manufacturer: Eagle, Material: Brass, Item Type: Ornament/ Figurine, Mounted/ Unmounted: Unmounted, Country/Region of Manufacture: United Kingdom

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